Carbodiimide Activation Wiki

Hydroxamates are physiologically active compounds. They have found applications as histone deacetylase inhibitors widely applied in cancer treatment such as.

carbodiimide activation wiki

A carbodiimide or a methanediimine is a functional group consisting of the formula RN C NR. Carbodiimides hydrolyze to form ureas, which makes them uncommon in.

Synthesis and Biological Applications of Hydroxamates

Carbodiimides hydrolyze to form ureas, which makes them uncommon in nature. From the perspective of small molecule activation, carbodiimides are.

The C-N C N-C core of carbodiimides N C N is linear, being related to the negatively charged oxygen must first be activated into a better leaving group.

David I. Ugwu1, Benjamin E. Ezema1, Florence U. Eze1, Jude I. Ayogu1, Chidimma G. Ezema2, Daniel I. Ugwuja3

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

2National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

3Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria

Correspondence to: David I. Ugwu, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.Email:

Copyright 2014 Scientific Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

Hydroxamates are physiologically active compounds. They have found applications as histone deacetylase inhibitors widely applied in cancer treatment such as vorinostat, belinostat, panobinostat and trichostatin A. There are hydroxamates with reported anti-HIV activity such as the hydroxyurea which acts as inhibitors of cellular enzyme ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. Hydroxyurea are also used for treatment of chronic myelogenal leukemia, myeloproliferative syndromes and sickle cell anemia. Hydroxamates such as fosmidomycin and desferrioxamine B are potent antimalarial agent. Cipemastat, marimastat, periostat, ilomastat and batimastat are all hydroxamate-based inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase and are by so used in management of cardiovascular diseases. The syntheses of various classes of hydroxamates and their mode of biological applications have been reviewed.The broad biological activities of hydroxamates and the need to improve on their synthetic routes informed the review of their synthesis and biological applications.

Keywords:

Keyword Histone deacetylase inhibitors, Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, HIV, Hydroxamaates, Ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase

Cite this paper: David I. Ugwu, Benjamin E. Ezema, Florence U. Eze, Jude I. Ayogu, Chidimma G. Ezema, Daniel I. Ugwuja, Synthesis and Biological Applications of Hydroxamates, American Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2014, pp. 26-51. doi: 10.5923/j.ajoc.20140402.02.

1. Introduction Hydroxamates are class of organic compounds bearing the functional group RICON OH RII as organic residues and CO as a carbonyl group. They are amides where the hydrogen H atom of NH center has been replaced by an OH. They are otherwise called Weinreb amides. Hydroxamates are deprotonated product of hydroxamic acid and acts as excellent ligand. 1 Hydroxamates have high affinity for ferric ions that nature has evolved families of hydroxamic acids to function as no N-binding compounds siderophores in bacteria. 2 Hydroxamates of amino acids are effective inhibitors of amino peptidases. 3 Their mode of action results from the formation of bidentate ligand with active site of zinc. Hydroxamic acids have been the source of much biochemical interest in recent years reflecting the fact that they demonstrate a wide variety of biological activities. 4 Much of their activities are due to their chelating properties with metal ions, especially with transition metals, hence constituting a very important class of chelating agents with versatile biological activities. 5, 6 A number of synthetic routes are available for the preparation of hydroxamic acids, 7-12 but some are tedious, time consuming and costly as well. The reasonable way of producing hydroxamic acid derivative is the reaction of hydroxylamine with acid chlorides or esters. 13 Hydroxamic acids are capable of inhibiting a variety of enzymes, including ureases, 14, 15 peroxidises 16, and matrix metalloproteinases. 17, 18 These class of compounds are used in the design of therapeutics targeting cancer 19, 20 e.g. histone deacetylases HDACs inhibitors like vorinostat, belinostat, panobinostat and trichostatin A, 21 cardiovascular diseases 22 e.g. Marimastat, periostat, ilomastat etc., HIV 23 e.g. hydroxyurea, 24 Alzheimer s, 25 malaria 26, 27 e.g. desferrioxamine B, fosmidomycin, siderophores 28 and allergic diseases. 29 The wide biological application of hydroxamates necessitates the review of its synthesis and biological applications. 2. General Synthesis of Weinreb Amides Hydroxamic acids are prepared usually from esters or acid chlorides or carboxylic acids.2.1. Synthesis of Benzohydroxamic Acid 3 The synthesis of compound 3 was achieved by reacting methyl benzoate 1 and hydroxylamine 2. 30 Scheme 12.2. Synthesis of Hydroxamates Using N,N1,NII–trimethoxy-N,NI,NII-trimethyl Phosphorus Triamides 5 Nui et al 31 reported the conversion of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids, including sterically hindered substrates directly to hydroxamates using N,NI,NII-trimethoxy-N,NI,NII–trimethyl phosphorus triamide 5. On condensation of aromatic or aliphatic carboxylic acid 4 0.01M and compound 5 0.005M in toluene at 60 for 0.5 to 1 h, the hydroxamate 6 was obtained in excellent yield. Scheme 22.3. Ester Synthesis of Hydroxamate Riva et al 32 reported the transformation of methyl or ethyl carboxylic esters into the corresponding hydroxamic acid. To achieve this, the ester 0.5 M in methanol and hydroxyl amine 10 eq was reacted in the presence of sodium methoxide 1 eq. Following an optimization studies, they found that at 70 and 30 min, highest yield of the hydroxamate was obtained with high purity. Scheme 32.4. Microware Activated Hydroxamic Acid Synthesis Massaro et al 33 has shown that the reaction of esters with hydroxylamine in the presence of a base under microwave activation provides hydroxamic acids in good yield and high purity. The method has been success fully applied to enantiomerically pure esters without loss of stereochemical integrity. Scheme 42.5. 1-Propanephosphonic Acid Cyclic Anhydride T3P Promoted Synthesis of Hydroxamic Acid1-Propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride T3P promotes the synthesis of hydroxamic acids from carboxylic acids. 34 Application of ultra-sonication was showed to accelerate this conversion. Further, T3P has also been employed to activate the hydroxamtes leading to isocyanates via Lossen rearrangement 34. Scheme 52.6. NHC–catalyzed Synthesis of Hydroxamic Acids N-Heterocyclic carbene NHC catalyzed amidation of a variety of aryl, alkyl, alkenyl and heterocyclic aldehydes with nitroso compounds is a powerful method for the synthesis of N-aryl hydroxamic acids in excellent yields. 35 Scheme 62.7. Chemoselective Esterificaiton Using Imidazole Carbamates Imidazole carbamates and ureas are used as chemoselective esterification and amidation reagents. A simple synthetic procedure allows the conversion of a wide variety of carboxylic acid to hydroxamates. 36 Scheme 72.8. Synthesis of Weinreb Amides Using Triazime Intermediates De Luca et al 37 reported the successful large scale synthesis of weinreb amide through a convenient and simple one-flask method via 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine intermediate 20. The reaction of carboxylic acid 1eq and 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine 1.2 eq in the presence of N-methyl morpholine 3 eq., THF at room temperature for 1-3 h gave the 4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine intermediate 20, compound 20 upon treatment with substituted hydroxylamine 1 eq at room temperature for 8 h gave the target product 21.There are many more general synthetic routes that have been reported and cannot be described for lack of space but are mentioned in this review. White et al 38 reported the synthesis of hydroxamates using Deoxo-fluor; Katritzky et al 39 reported the synthesis of N-alkyl, O-alkyl and O, N-dialkyl hydroxamic acids via acyl benzotriazole intermediates; Gissot et al 40 reported high yielding one step synthesis of hydoxamates from various un-activated esters including enolizable esters and chrial α-amino acid esters and peptides ; Woo et al 41 reported the conversion of sterically hindered carboxylic acids to N-methoxy-N-methyl amides using 1.1eq of methanesulphonyl chloride; Martinelli et al 42 reported the palladium catalysed amino carbonylation of anyl bromides into the corresponding Weinreb amides; Nemoto et al 43 also reported a one pot synthesis of α-siloxy weinreb amides from aldelydes using N,O-dimethly amine and a masked acyl cyamide reagent bearing a tert-butyl dimethyl silyl group. Scheme 83. Synthesis of Anticancer Hydroxamates Most hydroxamates used in cancer chemotherapy acts as histone deacetylase HDAC inhibitors. Histone deacetylase are a group of enzymes that removes acetyl groups from the lysine residues on a histone. Removal of the acetyl groups known as hypo acetylation restores the normal positive change to the histone and therefore allows the DNA to condense and prevent transcription. This silencing can become permanent if the unprotected lysines are then methylated. HDAC performs the reverse process of histone acetyl coA to the lysines on the histone, inducing a state known as hyper acetylation. Hyper acetylation causes a decreased binding of the histones to DNA and leads to chromatin expansion, allowing transcription to take place. Hyper acetylation of histones increases the access of some transcription factors to nucleosomes thereby increasing RNA transcription. Histone deacetylase inhibitors HDI leads to hyper acetylation by blocking the function of histone deacetylase, therefore leaving the lysine amino acids acetylated from the histone acetyl transferase and ultimately increasing transcription. This process increases the amount of RNA present in the cell and their respective encoded proteins. 44 3.1. Synthesis of Trichostatin A Trichostatin A was the first naturally occurring HDI to be discovered. It is also one of the most potent HDIs. It causes an increase in acetylated histones in a variety of mammalian tumor cell line. 45 Trichostatin A was shown to be a selective histone deacetylase inhibitor, reversibly inhibiting classes I, II and IV types of HDAC while not affecting class III. It exhibits an IC50 in the nanomolar range. 46 The first portion of the synthesis is shown in scheme 9. Protection of the commercially available hydro ester 22 with tertiary-butyldimethylsilyl chloride TBDMS-Cl gave silyl ester 23. The ester 23 on reduction with LiBH4 gave the alcohol. Oxidation of alcohol 24 under Swern condition 47 gave aldehyde 25 which was treated with an aryl Grignard reagent to produce alcohol 26. Alcohol 26 was treated with 2-methoxy propene and pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate PPTS to generate protected diol 27. The TBS group was later recovered with tetra- normal-butylammonium fluoride TBAF in THF to give alcohol 28 in 91 yields. The second portion of the synthesis is presented in schemes 10. Alcohol 28 was oxidized using Parikh-Doering conditions 48 to form aldehyde 29 following the findings of Smith et al. 49 Aldelyde 29 was reacted with 1-ethoxycarbonyl ethylidene triphenylphosphorane in methylene chloride to produce ester 30 which was reduced to alcohol 31. Alcohol 31 was then oxidized using Parikh-Doering conditions 50 to form aldehyde 32 which was treated with ethoxycarbonyl-methylene triphenyl phosphorane in methylene chloride to provide ester 33. Finally, trichostatin A was obtained from 33 using the Mori and Koseki route 51 as presented in scheme 11. Ethyl ester 33 was treated with lithium hydroxide in methanol for 16 h at 45, then the pH of the reaction mixture was lowered to 3 with 1M HCl to give free acid 34, which was treated with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone DDQ in 1,4-dioxane to give trichostatin acid 35 in 29 yield. Acid 35 was condensed with hydroxylamine 36, available in a 10 yield via a two-step sequence from N-hydroxyphthalamide to give the protected hydroxamic acid 37 in 63 yield. The protected acid 37 was then treated with amberlyst 15 in methanol to give trichostatin A 38. Scheme 9Scheme 10Scheme 11There are two notable problems with the synthesis outlined in scheme 11. First of all, it is a long process with some steps such as the production of compound 36 taking several days. Second, it is inefficient since the overall yield for the last four steps is only 8.4. Colombo 44 found a shorter and more efficient way for scheme 11. First alternative only differ in step 3 of scheme 11. They treated acid 35 with ethyl chloroformate and triethylamine in tetrahydrofuran followed by hydroxylamine generated in situ to afford compound 38 in 23 yields. Scheme 12Though scheme 12 reduced the steps from four to three, there was further decrease in the yield. To ensure an increased yield, they further modified the methodology as presented in scheme 13.Scheme 13 In this, Ethyl ester 33 was cleaved with hydrochloric acid in THF to give alcohol 39 while leaving the ethyl ester intact. Alcohol 39 was treated with NH2OH in methanol to provide the hydroxamic acid 40. Oxidation of 40 using DDQ in 1,4-dioxane produced trichostatin A 38 in 58 yield over two steps. 3.2. Synthesis of Vorinostat Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is currently marketed for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma CTCL, a type of skin cancer. It is used for treating patients having a tumor characterized by proliferation of neoplastic cells. Process for the preparation of vorinostat and its form 1 crystalline polymorph have been disclosed in patent US 2004/0122101 and WO 2006/127319. The disclosed processes, comprising the preparation of vorinostat from suberic acid, are a cumbersome three steps of amidation of suberic acid with aniline, esterification of the mono amide product with methanol and finally reaction with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium methoxide to afford vorinostat. This process is not very convenient as it involves elevated temperature, lengthy reaction times and has a low overall yield of around 23. In addition, the intermediate products and final product are not very pure and require exhaustive purification steps. Four alternative processes to obtain vorinostat has been reported in US patent 5369108 by Vinayak et al 51 and illustrated in scheme14, 15, 16 and 17. In scheme 14, 16 and 17, amide formation was reported by the reaction of suberoyl chloride, anline and a third reactant. The third reactant was hydroxylamine hydrochloride, O-benzyl hydroxylamine and O- trimethylsilyl hydroxylamine in scheme 14, 16 and 17 respectively. The yield of vorinostat obtained in the three processes was almost 35 in each case. In schemes 15, suberic acid monomethyl ester was converted to suberic acid monomethylester-monoacid chloride by treatment with oxalyl chloride and dimethyl formamide in benzene. The monomethylester–mono acid chloride formed was converted into the monoamide of suberic acid by treatment with aniline and subsequently potassium hydroxide. The suberic acid monoamide was treated with O-benzyl hydroxylamine and 1,3-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide DCC in pyridine, followed by hydrogenolysis to afford vorinostat. The product yields were from 35 to 65. Scheme 14Scheme 15Scheme 16The major disadvantages of the processes disclosed in the prior art are as follows: All schemes involve lengthy process step to obtain vorinostat; the reagents used in the processes can be very expensive. Consequently, the process is not cost effective enough for commercial manufacture. The product is only obtained after column chromatography or extensive purification step. This reduces the overall yield and puts severe restriction on the feasibility of the process for scale up to commercial production. All the processes shown require the isolation of all reaction intermediates. In view of the importance acquired for the treatment of cancer, there is a great need for developing an alternative relatively simple, economical and commercially feasible process for the synthesis of vorinostat with a commercially acceptable yield and high purity. The present inventors have surprisingly found that vorinostat can be prepared with very high purity employing a simple, efficient process starting with the readily available precursor suberic acid.A first aspect of the invention provides a process for the preparation of vorinostat comprising of the following steps a Reaction of suberic acid and a haloformate b Reaction of aniline with the product of step a c Reaction of a haloformate with the product of step b d Reaction of hydroxylamine with the product of step c e Isolation of the production vorinostat. The haloformate in step a and c is selected from the group comprising alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl or aryl alkyl halo formates. More preferably, the haloformate is selected from methyl, ethyl and benzyl or t-butyl haloformate. The purity of the product of this reaction was found to be 99.9 and yield 41. Scheme 173.3. Synthesis of Panobinostat Panobinostat LBH579 is an experimental drug developed by Novartis for the treatment of various cancers. It acts as a non-selective histone deacetylase inhibitor. 52 As at August 2012 it is being tested against Hodgkin s Lymphoma, cutaneous T cell CTCL 53 and other type of malignant disease in phase III clinical trials, against myelodysplastic syndromes, breast cancer and prostate cancer in phase II trials and against chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in phase I trial. 54, 55 The synthesis is reported in scheme 18. 2-methyl indole-3-glyoxylamine 53 is reduced with LiALH4 to afford 2-methyltryptamine 54. 4-Formyl cinnamic acid is esterified with methanol and the resulting aldehyde ester 55 is reductively aminated with compound 54 in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride NaBH3CN or sodium borohydride NaBH4 to give an ester 56 which on treatment with aqueous hydroxylamine under basic condition gave the title hydroxamic acid 57. Scheme 18Panobinostat has been found to synergistically act with sirolimus to kill pancreatic cancer calls. 56 The investigators found that this combination destroyed up to 65 of cultured pancreatic tumor cells. The finding is significant because the three cell lines studied were all resistant to the effect of chemotherapy as are many pancreatic tumors. 56 3.4. Synthesis of N-hydroxyl-3- 4- 2-hydroxyethyl 2- 1H-indol-3-yl ethyl amino methyl phenyl -2E-2-propenamide This is a derivative of panobinostat which has lost the methyl group on the indole moiety. This class of compounds is useful for treating proliferative diseases. The compounds have been found to be useful for treating breast cancer, genitourinary cancer, neuroblastoma, head and or neck cancer or bladder cancer or in a broad sense renal, brain or gastric cancer. The compounds were found to be selectively toxic or more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells than to normal cells. 57 In the synthesis, 58 the aldelyde 58 was reductively aminated to provide secondary or tertiary amines. 4-Methyl formyl cinnamate 59 on reaction with tryptamine 60 in the presence of sodium triacetoxy borohydride NaBH OAc 3 as a reducing agent using dichloroethane as solvent gave the amine 61. The amine 61 was converted to hydroxamic acid 62 by treatment with 50 aqueous hydroxylamine in a suitable solvent e.g. THF in the presence of a base such as NaOH. Sodium borohydride NaBH4 and sodium cyanoborohydride NaBH3CN in other solvents or solvent mixture in the presence of acid catalysts such as acetic acid or trifluoroacetic acid can also be used in place of NaBH OAc 3. Scheme 19Scheme 20The lactate monohydrate salt of panobinostat was synthesized following the steps below:a. Compound 57 was synthesized following an alternative route 59 b. Compound 57 was then suspended in acetonec. Lactic acid was added drop wise at ambient temperature d. Compound 70 i.e. the lactate salt was isolated and then washed with cold acetone and dried. The reaction is presented in scheme 20.3.5. Synthesis of Hydroxamic Acid Containing 1,4–BenzodiazepinesThe benzodiazepine derivative was synthesized by employing an intra-molecular Pd 0 -mediated ring opening of an acyl nitroso-derived cyclo adduct 71. The new hydroxamic acid containing benzodiazepine 72 was synthesized and has demonstrated biological activity in MCF-7 and PC-3 tumor cell lines. Subsequent N-O bond reduction of the hydroxamate has provided access to amide analogues 73 for structure activity relationship studies. 60 Scheme 213.6. Synthesis of Polynucliar Diorganotin IV Complexes with Di-halogeno Benzohydroxamate LigandsThe biological activity of organotin compounds is well known owing to their practical applications as fungicides, bactericides, biocides and pesticides. 61-65 Hydroxamic acids as inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase can behave as strong bidentate O-donors with bioactivity. 66-70 The synthesis and activity of a series of 1:2 diorganotin IV aryl hydroxamate mononuclear complexes has shown that they can act as anticancer agents namely against gastric and liver carcinomas. 71-72 The agents were found to be difficult to formulate due to the low aqueous solubility subsequently, the fluoro complex N-Bu2Sn 4-FC6H4C O NHO was obtained and found to have a superior anti hepatocellular and nasopharyngeal activity in comparison with the chloro analogue and a broad spectrum of antitumor activity. 72, 73 Its IC50 values against two human tumor cell lines HCT-8 and Bel-7402 are 59 and 60 ng/mL respectively being considerably better than those of cisplatin and reflecting a marked effect of the para-halo-substituent in the benzohydroxamate ligand. Shang et al 74 also reported the in vitro cytotoxicity of diorganotin IV aryl hydroxamate complexes in human promyelocyticfina leukemic HL-60, nasopharyngeal carcinoma KB, hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 and gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell lines.Shang and co-workers 74 achieved the synthesis of organotin IV aryl hydroxamates simply by reacting an aromatic carboxylic ester with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give the potassium salt which on treatment with acetic acid gave the aryl hydroxamates in excellent yield. The hydroxylamine was generated in situ using excessive KOH and NH2OH.HCl dissolved in dry ethanol.The complex, Bu2SnL2 was synthesized according to the following procedure: Di-n-butyltin oxide and an appropriate hydroxamic acid were reacted with refluxing in a mixture of toluene and ethanol 3:1 with azeotropic removal of water.The hydroxamates synthesized includes the following:Scheme 22The results of the in vitro tests of the organotin IV complexes against human A-549 tumor cells and P388 leukemia showed that compound 76 complex had greater anticancer property. 75 Synthesis of organotin IV derivatives 89 of N-methyl-p-fluoro benzohydroxamic acid.The ligand was prepared by the reaction of p-fluorobenzoyl chloride 86 with N-methyl hydroxylamine 87 in the presence of NaHCO3 as catalyst. The diorganotin IV complexes were synthesized in 2:1 molar ratio by refluxing the free ligand 88 with diorganotin IV oxide in hot toluence for 5-6 h with string and the water formed was removed azeotropically using a Dean-Stark apparatus. The resulting solution was cooled and filtered and the solvent evaporated. The solid was precipitated by adding petroleum either 60-80 and then recrystallized from methanol. 76 Scheme 23The synthesized organotins were evaluated for the biological activity, specifically cytotoxicity on HTC 116 colorectal carcinoma cell line. The 1C50 of butyl derivative was not ascertained because of insolubility in DMSO. The dimethyl complex showed the greatest cytotoxicity of greater than 40 ng/mL and the triphenyltin IV had the least cytotoxicity. 4. Synthesis of Anti-HIV Hydroxamates Efforts to find an effective anti HIV-1 chemotherapy have been focused on the development of chemicals that inhibit viral proteins, which are essential for HIV replication. The most important limitation of this therapeutic approach is the rapid generation of mutated quasi-species of HIV-1 resistant to those inhibitors. It has been suggested that a combination of antiviral chemotherapy with some inhibitors of cellular proteins may greatly improve the anti-HIV-I treatment. Among these proteins, the cellular enzyme ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase may be an important target, since this enzyme can be inhibited by compounds of the hydroxamate family such as hydroxyurea HU. HU is a free radical quencher that inhibits the cellular enzyme ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and in so doing, reduces the levels of deoxyribonucleotide. 77 Hydroxyurea has been used over the last 30 years for the treatment of human diseases such as chronic myelogenal leukemia, myeloproliferative syndromes and more recently sickle cell anaemia. 78-82 Moreover, HU inhibits HIV-1 DNA synthesis in activated peripheral blood lymphocytes by decreasing the amount of intracellular deoxynucleotides. Combination of hydroxyurea with the nucleoside analogue didanosine generated a synergistic inhibitory effect without increasing toxicity. 83-86 Hydroxyurea was first synthesized in 1869 by Dresler and stem from hydroxylamine and hydrogen cyanate; the industrial process is analogous. 87 HU may also be synthesized by reaction of ethyl carbonate with hydroxylamine wherein hydroxylamine displaces the ester to give the amide. 88 Hydroxyurea 91 is also prepared by reacting sodium cyanate 90 with hydroxylamine in the presence of a basic ion exchange resin amberlit. Scheme 24The derivatives of hydroxyurea has been prepared by Kos et al 89 using 1- N-benzyloxy carbamoyl benzotriazole 93 which was synthesized by the reaction of 1,1I-carbarmoyl bisbenzotriazole 92 with corresponding oxyamine hydrochloride benzyloxy hydroxylamine hydrochloride, methoxy amine hydrochloride and ethoxylamine hydrochloride and triethylamine in 1,4-dioxane suspension. Compound 92 was prepared by suspending 1H-benzotriazole and a solid triphosgene in toluene 20 solution. The use of 92 in reactions with methoxy-, ethoxy-, and benzyloxy amines afforded 93, 1 N-methoxy carbamoyl benzotriazole 94 and 1- N-ethoxy carbamoyl benzo triazole 95. Compound 93 was utilized as a donor of benzyloxy isocyanate which is very useful for the synthesis of hydroxyurea derivatives. When heated up to 130 in reactions with urea or 4-aminobenzoic acid, in presence of imidazole as a catalyst, it afforded N-benzyloxy biuret 96 and 4- benzyloxy carbamoyl amino benzoic acid 97. Under the same experimental conditions, compound 92 in the reaction with N-benzyloxyurea 98 and N,N1-bisbenzyloxyurea 99. The benzyl isoxycyanate can further be trimerized to N,NI,NII-tribenzyloxy-triazinone 100, and yields a minor product N,N1,NII-tribenzyloxy biuret 101. Compounds, 93, 96, 97, 98, 100 and 101 were hydrogenated with hydrogen under atmospheric pressure at room temperature in the presence of a catalytic amount of palladium on carbon Pd/C, 10. The corresponding hydroxyl derivatives i.e. 1- N-hydroxycarbamoyl benzotriazole 102, 1-hydroxyl biuret 103, 4- hydroxy carbamoyl amino benzoic acid 104, N–hydroxyl urea 105, N,N1N11–trihydroxy biuret 106, and N,N1N11-trihydroxy isocyanuric acid 107 were obtained in quantitative yields. 5. Synthesis of Antimalarial Hydroxamates Most hydroxamates that are used as antimalarial drugs acts as a chelator. The biological action has been attributed to chelation of internal iron pools 90 and in turn to interference with the supply of iron to different components, 91 possibly to ribonucleotide redutase. 91 In general, the speed of antimalarial action of any hydroxamate type chelator, the stage of specificity of the effects, and the growth arrest efficacy are largely a result of their membrane permeation properties and iron III -binding capacity 92 thus, the in vitro antimalarial action of the relatively hydrophilic desferrioxamine DFO B is manifested after 8 to 10 h of continuous exposure of Plasmodium falciparum trophozites to the drug the 50 inhibitory concentrated in a 24 h culture was 30 mmol. 93 Less hydrophilic derivatives of desferrioxamine B such as N-terminal modified desferrioxamine 92 or a series of synthetic reversed siderophores 94 RSFs showed up to 10 fold higher potency as reflected in the speed of action and the 50 inhibitory concentration as well as a wider spectrum of activities at all developmental stage. 92 However, whereas the effects of DFO on trophozoites were relatively slow to develop, 91 but largely irreversible in nature, 92 those of RSFs were irreversible only on the ring stage but reversible in trophozoites. 93 5.1. Synthesis of Desferrioxamine B Desferioxamine B is a polyhydroxamate iron chelator that is useful for reducing iron concentration in human blood plasma. It has the desirable property of high affinity for ferric ion Ka 1031 coupled with a very low affinity for calcium Ka 102. 94 Industrial scale fermentation process for producing desferrioxamine B uses the Streptomyces pilosus bacteria strain which produces a variety of polyhydroxamate compounds but predominantly desferrioxamine B, in a culture medium poor in iron. This is isolated from the fermentation broth as its hydrochloride salt which is not pharmaceutically acceptable. 95 Therefore it must be converted to the mesylate salt which is the approved desferrioxamine salt. The purification methods do not remove the fermentation products that are structurally related to desferrioxamine B efficiently. 96 5.2. Production of Desferrioxamine B Using Corn Steep LiquorDesferrioxamine B is the major siderophore of Streptomyces pilosus. They are used clinically to treat disorders related to iron overload and pathological iron deposition in human. Corn steep liquor CSL is a by-product of corn wet-milling. It is an excellent source of organic nitrogen and important constituent of some culture media. The CSL is cheaper them other media and its availability is so easy. CSL virtually contains constituents that are naturally occurring nutritive materials such as crude proteins, amino acids, vitamins, reducing sugars, organic acids, minerals and other elemental nutrients. In their experiment, 97 lyophilized S. pilosus ATCC 19797 was cultured in several media such as malt yeast extract broth MYB, nutrient broth NB, Bertani LB and soybean. After 48 h incubation in shaker incubator at 29 and shaking at 150 rpm, the refreshed bacteria were stocked in 10 mL vials with 15 glycerol and kept at 4 for 24 h and then transferred to -20. The best growth was observed in the soybean medium. Therefore this medium was selected as a base medium for subsequent experiments. The bacterium was cultured in 24 similar flasks containing 25 mL soybean medium under the above mentioned conditions. Samples were drawn every 8 h for 8 days. Contents of the flask were filtered and dried in an oven at 60 for 3 days. Dry mass of bacteria was weighted. To confirm the production of desferrioxamine, a single colony of the bacteria was cultured on nutrient agar. After 4 days, a piece of Whatmann No 1 filter paper soaked in 1 ammonium ferric sulphate Fe NH4 SO4 2.12 H2O in 1 sulphuric acid was placed on the single colonies. The appearance of a brown or reddish brown halo around the colony in agar after 15 min indicated the presence of desferrioxamine B Schupp et al 1988. The amount of desferrioxamine B in culture was measured spectrophotometrically. In this regard, the bacterium was cultured in soybean broth medium for 8day at 29 under shaking 150 rpm. Every 8 h, 1mL sample was withdrawn and centrifuged at 4000 rpm 4. The supernatant was diluted ten times with distilled water and 5 mg/mL of ammonium ferric sulphate in 1 sulphuric acid was added to a final concentration of 20. The absorbance was read at 430 nm and its concentration was found by extrapolation. When the soybean was replaced with CSL and in combination with soybean in decreasing percentage of soybean, it was found that as the percentage of CSL increases, the concentration of desferrioxamine B progressively increased as shown in table 1. Table 1. Concentration of desferrioxamine B

     Their finding proposes that CSL can be used as a perfect medium for production of valuable products in microorganisms. 97 5.3. Synthesis of Fosmidomycin Analogues as Antimalarial AgentsFosmidomycin has been proven to be efficient in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria by inhibiting 1-deoxy-D-xylulose–5–phosphate reductoisomerease DXR, an enzyme of the non-mevalonate pathway, which is absent in humans. Crystal structures of fosmidomycin-bound complete quaternary complexes of PfDXR revealed that i an intrinsic flexibility of the PfDXR molecule accounts for an induced fit movement to accommodate the bound inhibitor in the active site and ii as cis arrangement of the oxygen atoms of the hydroxamate group of the bound inhibitor to the active site metal. 98 Fosmidomycin acts as a transition state analogue with the retrohydroxamic acid moiety chelating the metal ion and the phosphate group resembling the phosphate group of the substrate. The X-ray structure of DXR complexed with fosmidomycin and a divalent cation 99 revealed that the N-formyl oxygen and the N-hydroxy oxygen of fosmidomycin displace two water molecules that were bound to the divalent cation. 100 Replacement of the formyl hydrogen of fosmidomycin by a methyl group yields FR900098. The methyl group is predicted to contact the side chain of TrP212 of catalytic loop. The corresponding methyl group is also present in DOXP, which supports the view that fosmidomycin binds substrate–like and not intermediate–like. 99 This is also supported by the higher affinity of FR900098 compared to fosmidomycin. 101 The relatively high doses of fosmidomycin required for parasite clearance compared with chloroquine and the unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties prompted researchers to modify this lead. The high dose requirement is partly due to highly polar nature of fosmidomycin prompted the modifications by Haemers. 102 The N-methyl and N-ethylacetamide derivatives were synthesized starting from N- 3-bromopropyl phthalamide 108. A Michelis-Arbusov reaction with an excess of triethyl phosphite under reflux, followed by treatment of 109 with hydrazine monohydrate yielded diethyl 3-aminopropyl phosphonate. After purification by column chromatography, amine 110 was acetylated with acetyl chloride. The resulting amine 111 was deprotonated with NaH and alkylated with iodoethane or iodomethane to give 112 and 113 respectively. Deprotection of the phosphonate esters gave the desired phosponates 114 and 115 using trimethylsilyl iodide TMSI or trimethylsilyl bromide TMSBr. Generally, TMSI gave better yield shorter reaction times.Scheme 25The synthesis of 2-substituted 1,2-oxazinon-3-one derivative of fosmidomycin 122 began with the replacement of the N-hydroxyacetaminde. The synthesis of compound 122 was achieved by a method adopted from Wolfe and coworker. 103 It started from butyrolactone 116 which was heated at 75 with a 45 solution of hydrogen bromide in acetic acid followed by treatment with methanol to give methyl gamma bromobutyrate 117. The bromide was displaced by N-hydroxyphthalamide to give compound 118. The aminoxy group in 118 was deprotected upon treatment with methyl hydrazine for 1.5h at -10. Deprotection with hydrazine under reflux was too drastic since it caused hydrolysis of the methyl ester. The cyclization of 119 was achieved with trimethyllaluminium in THF. A nucleophilic substitution of diethyl bromopropyl phosphonate with 120 using Et3N in THF failed due to insolubility of the oxazinone. It also failed with potassium fluoride-alumina in DMF. More effective in this case was the treatment of 120 with K2CO3 in acetone. The resulting phosphonate 121 was deprotected with TMSBr in CH2Cl2 to yield 122 that was further purified via reversed phase HPLC.Scheme 26In 2005, Woo et al 104 described the synthesis of the phosphate analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098. The former has previously been isolated form Pseudomonas fluorescens Pk-52 and is known as fosfoxacin. 105 The latter proved to be a very potent inhibitor of synechocystis DXR. These results prompted Woo and co-workers 104 to investigate a related series of β and gamma-oxa analogues. Scheme 27They further synthesized analogues 136 and 137 starting from retrohydroxamic acids 127 and 128 obtained by acylation of O-benzyl hydroxylamine. Retrohydroxamic acids 127, 128 were treated with para formaldehyde and potassium tert-butoxide to give the hydroxymethylated products 129 and 130 which were subsequently converted to the chlorides 131 and 132 as reported by Zhu et al. 106 Attempts to crystallize the chlorides from ethyl acetate led to hydrolysis to alcohols 129 and 130, crude 131 and 132 were directly used in the Williamson synthesis with 133. Addition of one equivalent of NaH did not prove effective to increase the moderate yield. Compound 133 was prepared by a neat reaction with dibenzyl phosphite, paraformaldehyde and triethylamine. The perbenzylated compounds 134 and 135 were finally deprotected by catalytic hydrogenation to yield the hydroxamates 136 and 137 which were purified by reverse phase HPLC.Scheme 286. Enzymatic Synthesis of Fatty Acid Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives Based on Palm Kernel OilVaysse et al 107 reported the synthesis of fatty hydroxamic acids from fatty acids or fatty acid methyl esters and hydroxylamine using lipase-acyl transferase from Candida parapsilosis as catalyst in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium. Recently, the synthesis of fatty hydroxamic acids FHAs from canola oil and hydroxylamine has been reported. 108 The reaction was carried out in biphasic medium in the presence of Lipozymes as immobilized enzymes, for optimization of the reaction, the effect of changing of reaction conditions such as types of organic solvent, pH, amount of enzyme, mole ratio of reactants and reaction time on the reaction. The synthesis of phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids PFHAs as the first derivatives of fatty hydroxamic acids has been reported. 109 They achieved the synthesis using phenyl hydroxyl aminolysis of canola or palm kernel oils in biphasic organic/aqueous medium using lipozyme as catalyst. The oils used had different compositions of saturated and unsaturated natural fatty acids with 12 to 22 carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. Hence the obtained procedure is applicable to other vegetable oils. Johangirian et al 110 recently reported the synthesis of fatty hydroxamic acid derivatives using lipozyme TL 1M catalyst at biphasic medium. N-methyl fatty hydroxamic acid MFHAs ; N-isopropyl fatty hydroxamic acid IPFHAs and N-benzyl fatty hydroxamic acid BFHAs were synthesized by reaction of palm kernel oil and N-methyl hydroxylamine N-MHA, N-isopropyl hydroxylamine N-IPHA and N-benzyl hydroxylamine N-BHA respectively.MFHAs, IPFHAs and BFHAs were synthesized from palm kernel oil according to the method earlier reported. 109 Methyl hydroxyl aminolysis, isopropyl hydroxyl aminolysis and benzyl hydroxyl aminolysis were carried out by shaking mixtures of the reactants which contained selected amounts of either N-MHA, N-IPHA or N-BHA respectively dissolve in distilled water 10 mL, palm kernel oil 710 mg, 1 mmol dissolved in hexane 14 mL and lipozyme TL 1M 80 mg in a 100 mL flask sealed using Teflon film. The mixtures were shaken at 120 rpm and 39 in a water bath shaker for 72 h. The product was separated from the reaction mixture as follows: First, the enzyme was filtered. The filtrate was then transferred into a separation funnel for separation of aqueous phase from organic phase. The organic phase in the funnel was shaken with distilled water 10 mL for removal of residual glycerol, and then 2M HCl solution 10 mL was added to remove the unreacted N-MHA, N-IPHA or N-BHA. Hexane was then removed by rotatory evaporation to obtain mixture of the product MFHAs, IPFHAs and BFHAs and unreacted oil. Finally, the product was extracted from the unreacted oil using absolute methanol 20 mL and then recovered by rotatory evaporation. The percentage of conversion at every experiment was calculated as follows:Conversion A 100/BA amount of experimental fatty hydroxamic acid derivative obtained at every experiment.B amount of theoretical fatty hydroxamic acid derivatives assuming all of the fatty acids in the oil were converted to fatty hydroxamic acid derivative.Scheme 29Molecular weight of palm kernel oil 710 mg/mol and its composition is 99 triglyceride caprylic acid 1, capric acid 3, lauric acid 50, myristic acid 18, palmitic acid 9, stearic acid 2, oleic acid 15, linoleic acid 1. Given the proportion of fatty acid in the oil, only the derivative of myristic, lauric acid and oleic acid was formulated.Formulation of methyl lauro hydroxamic acid 141; methyl myristo hydroxamic acid 142, methyl oleo hydroxamic acid 143Scheme 30Formulation of isopropyl laureo hydroxamic acid 144, isopropyl myristo hydroxamic acid 145, isopropyl oleo hydroxamic acid 146Scheme 31Formulation of benzyl laureo hydroxamic acid 147, benzyl myristo hydroxamic acid 148, benzyl oleo hydroxamic acid 149Scheme 327. Synthesis of Cardiovascular HydroxamatesCardiovascular hydroxamate belongs to matrix metalloproteinase MMP inhibitors. They inactivate MMPs. 111 MMPs belong to a family of zinc dependent neutral endopeptidases. 112 These enzymes have the ability to break down connective tissue. The expression of MMP is increased is increased in various pathological conditions like inflammatory conditions, metabolic bone disease. Examples of disease are periodontitis, hepatitis, glomerulo nephritis, atherosclerosis 113 etc. Due to the role of MMP in pathological conditions inhibitors of MMP may have therapeutic potential. 113 The first generation of MMP inhibitors were based on the structure of the collagen molecule. These groups of inhibitors contain a hydroxamate group that binds the zinc atom in the active site of MMP enzyme. 114 The first MMP inhibitors that were tested in patients were ilomastat and batimastat and none showed good oral bioavailabilty. 114 Thus far, periostat is the MMP inhibitor that has been approved by the United States FDA. It is basically used for the treatment of periodontitis. Other MMP inhibitors have exhibited serious side effects during preclinical trials. This side effect has been linked to the insufficient selectivity. Most MMP inhibitors are unable to target specific MMPs connected to specific pathological conditions. 115 7.1. Synthesis of Non-peptide Hydroxamate-based MMP InhibitorsSantos et al 116 reported the synthesis of new non-peptide hydroxamate-based MMP inhibitors by incorporating imino diacetic acid IDA hydroxamic acid scaffold, as mimics of truncated peptide MMP inhibitor. This new derivatives was achieved using series of alkylaryl and sulphonylaryl groups on the IDA basic scaffold. The synthesis is reported in scheme 33 and 23. The sulphonamide based IDA derivatives studied showed to be potent against deep SI pocket MMPs enzyme. The synthetic route for the preparation of the new compounds 150, 151 and 152 are reported in scheme 34 and 35. For the preparation of compound 150 and 151 scheme 33, the first step involved the IDA N-coupling with the appropriate alkylaryl or sulphonylaryl halides R1X, to give the corresponding N-substituted IDA intermediates 150a-f, 151a-c. Depending on the intermediate type, different reaction conditions have been used, namely, a homogenous phase for compounds 150a-f and Schotten-Baumann conditions for compounds 151a-c. The second step consisted of the condensation of one carboxylic group of the N-substituted IDA with hydroxylamine, upon previous activation of that group with ethyl chloroformate ECF in the presence of N-methyl morpholine. For the preparation of some compounds, the hydroxylamine was O-alkyl protected alkyl benzyl for compounds 150c1-150f1, 151a1and 151b1, and alkyl 2,4-dimethoxybenzyl DMB for compounds 150c1 and 150d1, here, the alphabets with prime refers to the respective intermediates containing a carboxylic acid and an O-protected hydroxamic acids whenever it exists and the ordinary alphabet refers to the dicarboxylic acid intermediates. The DMB O-protection was selected to avoid the undesirable removal of N-alkyl substituents by catalytic hydrogenolysis with palladium, the usual method for O-benzyl de-protection.The O-DMB protected hydroxylamine was prepared by amination of the dimethoxy benzyl alcohol according to the literature. 117, 118 For these intermediates, the DMB removal was otherwise carried out in acetic media using a 5 trifluoroacetic acid in CH2Cl2. Compound 152 was prepared by first, monoamidation of the N-benzyl imino diacetic anhydride with 3- 4-phenyl piperazin-1-yl propylamide, scheme 34, followed by condensation of the second carboxylic group with hydroxylamine in the presence of ECF and N-methylmorpholine NMM ; 3- 4-phenyl piperazin-1-yl propylamide was prepared by standard methods 119. Scheme 33Synthesis of compounds 150s and 151s: For 150a-f, i KOH, CH3OH, reflux; for 150c: ii TEA, 3eq RCl, CH3CN, reflux iii 1:1 THF/2M NaOH, rt; for 151a-c iv KOH, 1:5 H2O/THF; for 150a and 150b v ECF, NMM /THF, NH2OH/CH3OH, 0 ; for 150c1, 150d1 vi ECF, NMM /THF, NH2ODMB/CH3OH, 0 ; for 150e1, 150f1, 151a1-151c1, vii ECF, NMM /THF, NH2OBn/MeOH, 0 ; for 150c and 150d viii TFA, CH2Cl2,rt, for 150e,150f, 151a-c ix H2, Pd/C, MeOH, rt.Table 2. Derivatives of 150 and 151

     Scheme 34All N-alkylaryl-IDA hydroxamic acid derivatives were devoid of significant inhibitory activity on the MMPs screened, showing IC50 values in the micro molar range. Among these IDA derivatives, only the N-4-phenylbenzyl derivative 150a showed IC50 values below 100 µM for some of the selected MMPs 79.4 µM for MMP-2 and 70.8 µM for MMPs. However, their sulphonamide analogues showed high inhibitory potency against the MMPs screened with IC50 values in the nano molar range, thus a comparable or improved potency in comparison with reference drug CGS 27023A. The p-methoxy benzene sulphonamide 151a showed moderate/good inhibitory potency with IC50 values in the range of 0.2-0.3 µM. The introduction of bulky aromatic groups on the sulphonamide namely on the para position of the benzene sulphonamide moiety such as the rigid biphenyl sulphonamide 150b or the more flexible and adaptable p-phenoxy benzene sulphonamide 150c showed a considerable improvement in their inhibitory potential.7.2. Synthesis of CipemastatScheme 35Broadhurst et al 120 reported the synthesis of cipemastat using chiral hydroxyl acid 159. The first step was protection of the chiral hydroxyl acid 159 as its benzyl ester 160. The hydroxyl group of compound 160 was then activated towards displacement by conversion to its triflate 161. Reaction of the triflate with the anion from unsymmetrical malonate leads to trimester 162. The heterocyclic moiety was synthesized by the reaction of α-amino nitriles 163 with chlorosulphonyl isocyanate and hydrochloric acid to give hydantoin 164. Treatment of 164 with formaldehyde leads to a carbinol from addition to the free amino group on the imidazole dione. The hydroxyl group was then converted to the bromo derivative 165 with phosphorus tribromide. 121 The intermediate 165 was used to alkylate the enolate from 162 to 166. Catalytic hydrogenation of 166 leads to the formation of the corresponding ester-diacid by loss of the benzyl protection groups on two of the esters. Heating 166 in the presence of N-methyl morpholine causes the free acid on the carbon bearing the t-butyl ester to decarboxylate to compound 167. The desired stereoisomer 167 predominates, in effect reflecting the selectivity of alkylation step 162-166 caused by the presence of the preexisting adjacent chiral center. The free carboxylic acid is condensed with piperidine to form 168. The remaining ester was then hydrolyzed in acid to afford the acid 169. Reaction of 169 with O-benzyl hydroxylamine followed by hydrogenolysis of the benzyl group then led to the hydroxamic acid. Thus, the collagenase inhibitor cipemastat 170 was obtained.7.3. Synthesis of Bifunctional Metalloproteinase InhibitorsThe preparation of all the compounds started from an amino acid or its ester derivative as reported by Marques et al. 122 In the case of compound 171, the glycine ethyl ester was used as starting material, which was coupled with the aryl sulphonyl chloride to give the secondary aryl sulphonamide 172 in this case aryl 4-phenoxy benzene. Compound 172 was hydrolyzed with a KOH methanolic solution to generate the carboxylic acid 173 which was coupled with O-benzyl hydroxylamine or 4-methoxy benzene sulphonyl hydrazide to afford the benzyl O-protected hydroxamic acid 174 or the aryl sulphonyl hydrazide 175 respectively. The hydroxamic acid 171 was obtained after the benzyl removal from 174 by catalytic hydrogenation with 1.5 bar H2 and 5 palladium over charcoal.Scheme 36Scheme 37The synthetic procedure for the benzothiazole amine BTA containing inhibitors 187 and 188 started with the preparation of the benzothiazole amine BTA fragments 177 and 178 from the corresponding amino acid or ester and 2-aminotghiophenol 176, making use of a dehydrating agent, the polyphophoric acid. Glycine ethyl ester and D-valine respectively were used to obtain the compounds. The aryl sulphonamide analogue 179 and 180 were prepared from the coupling reaction of BTA fragments 177 and 178 with the respective aryl sulphonyl chloride. These sulphonamides were then reacted with t-butyl bromoacetate in anhydrous DMF, using the inorganic base K2CO3 to yield compounds 181 and 182; their t-butyl deprotection with 50 TFA in CH2Cl2 afforded the corresponding carboxylic analogue 183 and 184. These compounds were subjected to coupling reactions with different amine-bearing derivatives using either T3P or 1-Ethyl-3- 3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide EDC. These reactions provided the respective hydroxamic acid O-protected with 2,4-dimethoxy benzyl group Dmb 185 and 186. Removal of these protecting groups gave rise to the final hydroxamic acids 187 and 188 using 5 TFA/CH2Cl2.The synthesized bifunctional compounds showed an improved inhibitory activity against MMP-2 and MMP-14 as well as improved anti proliferative activity on A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.7.4. Synthesis of Peptide Hydroxamate MMP InhibitorsADAMs a disintegrin and metalloproteinase are metalloproteinase that contain a membrane-spanning and a disintegrin integrin binding domain. These membrane bound enzymes are involved in membrane fusion, cytokine and growth factor shedding, cell migration, muscle development, fertilization, cellular differentiation, cell-cell interactions and cell matrix interaction. 123-125 The best known ADAM is ADAM-17 also known as tumor necrosis factor α TNF α converting enzyme TACE, which was discovered based on its sheddase activity with respect to membrane-based TNF α. 126, 127 The expression of ADAMs and MMPs is regulated by transcription factors and activity is controlled by natural inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase TIMPs. Disturbance in these regulatory mechanisms are believed to cause or be involved in a wide range of pathological diseases. These include cancer metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune diseases. Deregulation of ADAM expression or activity has also been linked to asthma, Alzheimer s, bacterial lung infections and allergies of the airways. 123, 128-134 A requirement for potent MMP or ADAM inhibitors is that they contain a good zinc binding group ZBG. This is because MMPs and ADAMs contain a Zn2 ion in their active site, which forms a complex with the carbonyl group of the scissile amide bond. This complexation enhances the reactivity of the carbonyl towards nucleophilic attack of the water molecule that is present in the active site and also coordinated by Zn2 ion. 129 A large number of MMP and ADAM inhibitors contains an oligopeptide sequence that is equipped with a hydroxamate moiety at either the C- or the N-terminus. Commercially available members of this type are marimastat, batimastat and TAPI-2 each displaying sub- to low-nano molar, broad MMP/ADAM inhibitory activity. The oligopeptide portion ensures recognition by the metalloproteinase by directing the substituents to the corresponding enzymes binding pockets. The bidentate Zn2 chelating properties of the hydroxamic acid has the dual effect of a strong zinc coordination as well as expulsion of the nucleophilic water molecule from the active site, thereby preventing hydrolysis to occur.Scheme 38C-terminal peptide hydroxamic acids are readily available through modified solid phase peptide synthesis SPPS protocols. 135-140 In contrast; there are very few synthetic procedures towards N-terminal peptide hydroxamates 141-143 which obviate a non-SPPS step during synthesis. 144 In the synthesis of this class of compound, a building block 198 is first synthesized from chiral succinate 192 by condensation of the carboxylate with an appropriately protected hydroxylamine derivative followed by trans-esterification of the benzyl ester. In the first instance, compound 190 was synthesized from D-leucine 189 following a modified literature 145 as presented in scheme 38. In this, D-leucine was converted into the corresponding bromide followed by esterification with benzyl alcohol to give compound 190. Alkylation of di-tert-butyl malonate with compound 190 gave 191 which were converted into 192 in a two-step procedure. Chiral HPLC measurement indicated that compound 192 was formed as a 3:3:1 mixture of stereoisomers. Incubation of compound 192 in TFA for 16 h did not reduce the enantiomeric excess providing that scrambling of chirality takes place before deprotection step. 146 In order to obtain building block 198 in optically pure form, a second method for the synthesis of 192 was investigated. Chiral alkylation of compound 193 gave enantiopure tert-butyl ester 194. Removal of the chiral auxiliary using lithium benzyl alcoholate gave benzyl ester 195. Partial deprotection led to monoester 192 which was analyzed again by chiral HPLC and the e.e was determined to be 99. Next, the carboxylic acid was converted into its acyl chloride derivative and reacted with N-Boc-O-TBS-hydroxylamine giving fully protected succinyl hydroxamate 196. The benzyl ester was removed by catalytic hydrogenation to obtain free acid 197. They discovered that 196 were not labile during storage even at -20 but also extremely base sensitive. Attempts to precipitate it as several different alkyl ammonium salts led to complete degradation. In order to minimize the amount of base encountered by compound 196, it was transformed into an active ester derivative, which can in theory be coupled without additional base. The pentafluorophenyl PFP ester 198 obtained by reaction of 197 with pentafluorophenyl under the influence of EDC, proved to be far more stable during storage than acid 197. 146 Scheme 39Scheme 40DMAP 4- N,Ndimethylamino pyridine, LHMDS Lithium hexamethyl disilyazide.Next, they evaluated the potential of PFP-ester 198 in SPPS. Dipeptide 200 was synthesized on Rink amide resin 199 using standard SPPS protocols. After removal of the Fmoc group, several conditions for the coupling of 198 were investigated. The optional conditions proved to be shaking the resin for 2 h with 5 equivalents of 198 and 2 equivalents of DiPEA relative to the resin-bound peptide in N-Methylpyrrolidone NMP. The resulting product was cleaved from the resin and concomitantly deprotected using 95 aqueous TFA, clearly yielding peptide 201a, in the same fashion the analogous peptides in which phenylalanine was replaced with leucine 201b, 56, tryptophan 201c, 42, and tyrosine 201d, 71 were synthesized. HCTU O- 1H-6-Chlorobenzotriazolyl -1,1,3,3-tetramethyluroniumhexafluorophosphate, DiPEA diisopropylethylamine, TFA trifluoroacetic acid, NMP N-methyl-2-pyrrolidoneAA phenylalanine, leucine, tryptophan, tyrosine for a, b, c and d respectively.The enzyme inhibition tests using a fluorogenic substrate revealed IC50 values in the low nano molar range for the four compounds against both MMP-12 and ADAM-17. The observation that the aromatic amino acid containing compounds 201acd are more potent inhibitors than the aliphatic 201b corroborate earlier findings 129. 8. ConclusionsHydroxamates are physiologically important compounds. They are used as anticancer drugs given their ability to inhibit histone deacetylase HDAC. A good number of hydroxamates have found application in cancer therapy like the trichostatin A, vorinostat, panobinostat, polynuclear diorganotin IV complexes etc. Some hydroxamates have been used in HIV chemotherapy like the hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea inhibits the cellular enzyme ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and in so doing reduces the levels of deoxy ribonucleotide. They also have synergistic effect when in combination with didanosine. In malaria chemotherapy, hydroxamates are not left out. They are potential antimalarial. They acts as chelator, their biological action has been attributed to chelation of internal iron pools and in turn, to interference with the supply of iron to different components, possibly to ribonucleotide reductase. The most pronounced antimalarial hydroxamate is desferrioxamine B has been extended to corn steep liquor in recent studies. Ilomastat, batimastat, cipemastat, periostat and marimastat are all hydroxamate compounds used in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The cardiovascular hydroxamates inhibits matrix metalloproteinase MMPs. They inactivate the enzymes which has the ability to break down connective tissues. Although there are many MMP inhibitors, their increased side effect has limited their applications, only periostat is approved by United States FDA. As described in the review, most hydroxamates have very lengthy synthetic route and therefore this review explored various synthetic route to hydroxamates and presents a wider literature for easy modifications of the existing hydroxamates so as to exploit their broad biological applications.

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Biosynthesis. Small amounts of acetone are produced in the body by the decarboxylation of ketone bodies. Certain dietary patterns, including prolonged fasting and.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An alcohol treated with at least 3 equivalents of an activated halide such as allyl bromide or iodomethane and CDI.

The state-of-the-art on calcium orthophosphate CaPO4 -containing biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials suitable for biomedical applications is presented. Since these.

1-Ethyl-3- 3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide EDC, EDAC or EDCI is a It is generally used as a carboxyl activating agent for the coupling of primary.

Aurora Kinase Activation

aurora kinase activation

Function. Chromosomal segregation during mitosis as well as meiosis is regulated by kinases and phosphatases. The Aurora kinases associate with microtubules during.

  • 603072 - aurora kinase a; aurka - serine/threonine protein kinase 15; stk15;; stk6, mouse, homolog of; stk6;; aurora-related kinase 1; ark1;; aurora.
  • Aurora Kinase inhibitors inhibiting targets of signaling pathways used for various assays, some have entered clinical trials, which would be new cancer therapies.
  • Alisertib MLN8237 is a selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM in a cell-free assay. It has 200-fold higher selectivity for Aurora A than Aurora B. Phase 3.
  • Activated by phosphorylation at Thr-288; this brings about a change in the conformation of the activation segment. Phosphorylation at Thr-288 varies during the cell.

May 27, 2014 - We elucidate the molecular mechanisms of two distinct activation strategies autophosphorylation and TPX2-mediated activation in human Aurora A kinase. We then address the allosteric activation by TPX2 through activity assays and the crystal structure of a domain-swapped dimer of.

Introduction

The evolution of more than 500 human protein kinases from a few protein kinases in unicellular organisms allowed for the development of complexity via differential regulation Manning et al., 2002. Such regulation can be achieved by autophosphorylation or interactions with other domains or binding partners. While many of the signaling cascades and their in vivo biological effectors have been well characterized, and a wealth of structural information is available Johnson et al., 1996; Huse and Kuriyan, 2002; Manning et al., 2002; Tyson et al., 2003, the molecular mechanism whereby kinase activity is modulated is a topic of controversial debate Oliver et al., 2006; Dodson et al., 2013. Here we investigate two fundamentally distinct regulation mechanisms by characterizing autophosphorylation of Aurora A as well as activation by TPX2 Targeting Protein for Xklp2. Aurora A, a Ser/Thr kinase, is a key regulator of mitotic events, including mitotic entry Macurek et al., 2008; Seki et al., 2008, centrosome maturation Glover et al., 1995; Hannak et al., 2001; Toji et al., 2004; Abe et al., 2006; Mori et al., 2007, and spindle formation Giet et al., 2002; Kapitein et al., 2005; Tsai and Zheng, 2005; Koffa et al., 2006; Venoux et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008. Aurora A depletion leads to cell cycle arrest, while overexpression has been found in many cancer cell lines Kallioniemi et al., 1994; Sen et al., 1997; Zhou et al., 1998; Jeng et al., 2004. Therefore extensive interest has been recently directed towards Aurora A for anti-cancer drug development Aliagas-Martin et al., 2009; Bebbington et al., 2009; Cheok et al., 2010. TPX2 recruits Aurora A to the spindle microtubules, an event that is essential in spindle formation Kufer et al., 2002; Giubettini et al., 2011.

Autophosphorylation of T288 in the activation loop increases the catalytic activity of Aurora A Walter et al., 2000; Littlepage et al., 2002. Intramolecular autophosphorylation has recently been suggested for Aurora A and Chk2 based on indirect kinetic measurements Dodson et al., 2013 adding to the controversy by disagreeing with the intermolecular mechanism proposed for other protein kinases Oliver et al., 2006, 2007; Pike et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2009.

A second puzzling result has also been reported recently. It was shown that in vivo during mitosis, TPX2-bound Aurora A at the spindle microtubules is dephosphorylated at the crucial T288 Toya et al., 2011. Since T288-dephosphorylated Aurora A exhibits very low kinase activity, a second kinase-independent function of Aurora A was postulated Littlepage, 2002. There is evidence suggesting that TPX2 also plays an active role in upregulating Aurora A activity, however the interplay between the two distinct activation mechanisms, phosphorylation and TPX2-binding, is not well understood Kufer et al., 2002; Carmena and Earnshaw, 2003; Eyers and Maller, 2003; Eyers et al., 2003; Kufer et al., 2003; Trieselmann et al., 2003; Tsai et al., 2003; Bayliss et al., 2004; Brunet et al., 2004; Eyers and Maller, 2004; Ozlu et al., 2005; Tsai and Zheng, 2005; Anderson et al., 2007. Here we address both controversies by directly measuring autophosporylation and by characterizing the molecular mechanism of Aurora A regulation by TPX2.Results and discussionPhosphorylation of T288 in Aurora A or TPX2 binding results in comparable increases in catalytic activity

While it is generally accepted that phosphorylation of a Ser/Thr in the activation loop activates Ser/Thr kinases, this regulation has not been characterized quantitatively. Part of the difficulty consists in obtaining a dephosphorylated protein, since Escherichia coli-produced kinases are heavily phosphorylated due to autophosphorylation and phosphorylation by E. coli kinases during expression Enami and Ishihama, 1984 Figure 1A. Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 1. TPX21 45 drastically accelerates the kinetics of the dephosphorylated form of Aurora A kinase.

A Mass spectrometry data of heavily phosphorylated P and dephosphorylated deP Aurora A. The dephosphorylated protein was obtained after treatment of heavily phosphorylated, Escherichia coli-produced Aurora A with λ-protein phosphatase λPP. B AP phosphorylation by dephosphorylated , 0.01 0.005 s 1 or T288V mutant Aurora A , 0.05 0.002 s 1 is increased by up to 50-fold , 0.5 0.1 s 1 and 25-fold , 1.2 0.1 s 1, respectively, in the presence of TPX21 45. This rate is comparable to the kinetics of phosphorylated Aurora A in the absence of TPX21 45 , 1.0 0.2 s 1. Phosphorylated Aurora A shows up to a twofold increase in AP kinetics in the presence of TPX21 45 , 2.3 0.2 s 1. Reactions are carried out in the presence of 1 μM protein, 50 μM TPX21 45, 5 mM ATP, and 1 mM AP in assay buffer 20 mM TrisHCl, 200 mM NaCl, 20 mM MgCl2, 3 vol/vol glycerol, 1 mM TCEP, pH 7.50 at 25 C. Phosphorylated peptide production was monitored by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 1 figure supplement 1. Kinase assays were conducted under saturating conditions of peptide and ATP.

To ensure peptide and nucleotide would not be rate-limiting, A the KM for AP was determined to be 116 70 μM for phosphorylated Aurora A left and 320 150 μM for dephosphorylated-mimic, T288V mutant Aurora A right and B the kinetics of 10 μM Aurora A T288V were monitored under 1 mM AP at 5 mM ATP , 0.0054 s 1 and 15 mM ATP , 0.0055 s 1 as well as 2 mM AP and 15 mM ATP , 0.0056 s 1. In each case, the kinetics of AP phosphorylation were identical within experimental error. Since the KM for ATP for WT Aurora A is about 10 μM Kelly et al., 2011, all following kinetic reactions were run at 5 mM ATP 20 mM TrisHCl, 200 mM NaCl, 20 mM MgCl2, 3 vol/vol glycerol, 1 mM TCEP, pH 7.50 at 25 C. Phosphorylated peptide production was monitored by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 1 figure supplement 2. Aurora A exhibits the same activity towards AP whether the protein is phosphorylated on multiple sites or singly phosphorylated on T288.

The rates are 0.93 s 1 and 0.97 s 1, respectively. To obtain singly phosphorylated Aurora A 1P_AurA , dephosphorylated protein was autophosphorylated in the presence of ATP and a final concentration of 1 μM of this protein was used for the assay described here. Aurora A phosphorylated on multiple sites mP_AurA was obtained through classic expression in Escherichia coli cells see Figure 1A. Reactions were carried out in the presence of 5 mM ATP and 1 mM AP in assay buffer at 25 C.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 1 figure supplement 3. Aurora A kinase autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation were simultaneously followed either in the absence or presence of TPX21 45.

In the experiments aimed at measuring activity of AP phosphorylation of dephosphorylated Aurora A Figure 1B, autophosphorylation can occur during the time-course of the reaction. Therefore autophosphorylation of 1 μM Aurora A in the presence of 1 mM AP and 5 mM ATP and in the absence or presence of 50 μM TPX21 45 was monitored simultaneously with AP phosphorylation. Densitometry analysis left of raw Western blot data right is shown. To account for Aurora A s dynamic range, time points up to 300 s were diluted 50 and the rest of the time points were diluted 225. The amount of phosphorylated protein made during the reaction accounts for only 10 of the detected rate acceleration of AP phosphorylation in the presence of TPX2.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 1 figure supplement 4. TPX21 45 drastically accelerates the kinetics of the dephosphorylated-like Aurora A species irrespective of the nature of the peptide used.

TPX2 increases the kinetics of the dephosphorylated-protein mimic T288V mutant towards the peptides AP APSSRRTTLCGTL left, Kemptide LRRASLG middle, and Lats2373 387 ATLARRDSLQKPGLE right between 20- and 30-fold. Lats2 is an Aurora A substrate important in centrosome maturation, and Kemptide is a synthetic construct generally used as a substrate of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A PKA, a protein closely related to Aurora A. Reactions are carried out in the presence of 5 mM ATP and 1 mM peptide in assay buffer at 25 C. A longer TPX2 variant TPX21 147 was used as control to ensure full capture of TPX2 activity by the shorter variant TPX21 45. P: phosphorylated.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 1 figure supplement 5. Representative RP-HPLC time traces during AP phosphorylation.

These traces A show well resolved non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated peptide peaks at different reaction time points. B Screenshot of time traces for AP_T287E left and AP_T288E right phosphorylation show that Aurora A selectively phosphorylates AP on T288. Assays were carried out in the presence of 1 μM phosphorylated Aurora A, 1 mM AP or 1 mM AP_T287E or AP_T288E, 5 mM ATP, at 25 C in kinase assay buffer 20 mM TrisHCl, 200 mM NaCl, 20 mM MgCl2, 3 glycerol, 1 mM TCEP, pH 7.50.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 1 figure supplement 6. Dose-dependence of the concentration of TPX21 147 on the phosphorylation kinetics of AP by Aurora A T288V.

The calculated KA 1.0 0.5 μM compared well with the KD 1.1 0.1 μM obtained from ITC data Figure 7A. Assays were carried out in the presence of 1 μM Aurora A T288V, 1 mM AP, increasing concentrations of TPX21 147, 5 mM ATP, at 25 C in kinase assay buffer 20 mM TrisHCl, 200 mM NaCl, 20 mM MgCl2, 3 glycerol, 1 mM TCEP, pH 7.50.

DOI:

Aurora A was co-expressed with the generic Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphatase lambda λPP and treated again with λPP after purification to ensure complete dephosphorylation Figure 1A. We then measured the enzymatic activity of phosphorylated versus dephosphorylated Aurora A towards AP, a peptide encompassing residues 281–293 of the kinase s activation segment. The experiments were conducted under saturating conditions of peptide, ATP, and Mg2, and we ensured that the singly and heavily phosphorylated kinases exhibited similar kinetics Figure 1 figure supplement 1 and 2.

Phosphorylated Aurora A catalyzes AP phosphorylation 100-fold faster than the dephosphorylated kinase 1.0 0.2 s 1 vs 0.01 0.005 s 1; Figure 1B. Since dephosphorylated Aurora A can also autophosphorylate during this experiment, we not only quantified autophosphorylation during the reaction time frame Figure 1–figure supplement 3, but we also designed a second experiment that eliminates this competing reaction by mutating T288 to V. This mutant shows comparable low activity to the dephosphorylated kinase kcatAP 0.05 0.002 s 1 serving as a control for quantifying the rate acceleration provided by T288 phosphorylation.

Does TPX2 activate Aurora A to the same extent as phosphorylation or are both activation mechanisms additive. We used TPX21 45 in our studies since this fragment was shown to be sufficient for kinase activation Bayliss et al., 2003; Brunet et al., 2004. Our data suggest the first scenario since AP phosphorylation is stimulated by 50- and 25-fold by TPX21 45 for the dephosphorylated Aurora A and T288V Aurora A, respectively Figure 1B. The rates of dephosphorylated Aurora A plus TPX21 45 are comparable to that of phosphorylated Aurora A alone. Addition of TPX2 to phosphorylated Aurora A results in only a twofold increase in kcat. This effect is independent of the nature of the peptide used Figure 1–figure supplement 4. Dephosphorylated Aurora A kinase is in the active conformation when bound to TPX21 45

Having shown kinetically that TPX2 is sufficient to activate dephosphorylated Aurora A similarly to T288 phosphorylation, we next studied the underlying molecular mechanism. We first solved the crystal structure of dephosphorylated Aurora A in the absence and presence of TPX21 45 and bound to an ATP-mimic β,γ-methyleneadenosine 5 triphosphate, AMPPCP. The AMPPCP-bound, dephosphorylated Aurora A is monomeric and in an inactive conformation, similar to previously solved structures of the same protein bound to adenosine PDB ID 1MUO Cheetham et al., 2002 or AMPPNP PDB ID 2C6D Heron et al., 2006. In contrast, the TPX2-bound Aurora A structure reveals a dimer made by two molecules of Aurora A, TPX2, and AMPPCP in the asymmetric unit Figure 2A, Table 1. Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 2. Dephosphorylated Aurora A adopts an active conformation in the presence of TPX21 45.

A Dephosphorylated Aurora A TPX21 45 AMPPCP and B superposition of Aurora A moieties. C A detailed view of structural elements that define an active Aurora A kinase: the nucleotide binding region top inset and the regulatory spine bottom inset. Dephosphorylated deP Aurora A in the presence of TPX2 red, PDB ID 4C3P superposes very well to the phosphorylated P Aurora A either in the absence orange, PDB ID 1OL7 or presence of TPX2 yellow, PDB ID 1OL5. For comparison, dephosphorylated Aurora A alone light blue, PDB ID 4C3R shows the characteristic features of an inactive kinase.

Since the classic bilobal fold of protein kinases is by now well known from many elegant structural studies Cheetham, 2002; Bayliss et al., 2003, and our structure in the absence of TPX2 does not provide new information, we will only discuss novel insights gained from the TPX2-bound dephosphorylated Aurora A dimer.

Superposition of the Aurora A monomers shows that they are similar, but not identical within the heterodimer, with implications for autophosphorylation discussed below Figure 2B. Interestingly, both monomers are in an active conformation despite being dephosphorylated Figure 2C, a feature that has never been seen before in Aurora kinases. Comparison of dephosphorylated Aurora A in the absence or presence of TPX2 reveals subtle but significant interactions by which TPX2 stabilizes the active form of the kinase Figure 2C.

First, binding of TPX2 causes a slight rotation of the αC-helix towards the catalytic center, thus allowing for the conserved, stabilizing E181-K162 ion pair to form. The αC-helix rotation also results in movement of F275 of the conserved DFG motif from the DFG-out into the DFG-in position Martin et al., 2012 Figure 2C, bottom inset. This positions the catalytic D274 in the correct orientation to carry out phosphoryl transfer.

Second, movement of F275 initiates a cascade of side chain interactions that result in the completion of the regulatory spine originating from the αF-helix R-spine; Figure 2C, bottom inset. Identification of the completed R-spine, a hallmark of an active kinase, is based on the Local Spatial Patterns LSP alignment, a bioinformatics tool developed by the Taylor laboratory Kornev et al., 2008. From these structural features it appears that Aurora A, despite being dephosphorylated, is in an active conformation when bound to TPX2. We note that Bayliss et al. 2003 propose that the structure of phosphorylated Aurora A represents a partially active state because the authors interpret the activation segment to be in an inactive conformation as defined by the exposure of pThr288 to the solvent Bayliss et al., 2003. We would rather interpret that structure as an active state based on all hallmarks for active kinases Kornev et al., 2008, in agreement with our activity data Figure 1B. Does active, domain-swapped Aurora A dimer capture an enzyme/substrate complex for autophosphorylation.

The final signatures for an active state Ser/Thr kinase involve changes around the activation segment. Formation of the β6/β9 antiparallel β sheets, that are not present in the inactive kinase, prime the MgATP for catalysis together with the other conformational changes described above. Finally, the correct positioning of D256 for activating the hydroxyl of the substrate in active Aurora A is achieved by a hydrogen bond network to T292, which in turn H-bonds to K258 with distances shown in Figure 3A. All these features are fully conserved among eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinases Nolen and Taylor, 2004. Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 3. TPX2-bound domain-swapped Aurora A captures an enzyme–substrate complex.

A Left: in the presence of TPX21 45, the N-terminal β6 and β9 sheets anchor point of the activation loop is present in both monomers whereas the C-terminal H-bond contacts typical for a fully active kinase between D256/K258 and T292-OH are only visible for the enzyme monomer in red, which we therefore define as the enzyme molecule. Right: for comparison, in the absence of TPX21 45, the N- and C-terminal anchor points are not present and the protein is in an inactive state. Interactions that further stabilize the swapped dimer W313-P297/P298 and R371-E299 are shown in the bottom inset, highlighting that these intermolecular interactions left are identical to the corresponding intramolecular interactions right. B The loop spanning residues 283–288 in monomer II, for which there was too weak electron density, was remodeled using the software Modeller and biased molecular dynamics. The loop can be arranged by TMD so that the distance between T288 of monomer II and γ-phosphate of AMPPCP of monomer I is compatible with phosphoryl transfer.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 3 figure supplement 1. Comparison of the dimeric Aurora A TPX2 structure with other domain-swapped Ser/Thr kinases.

The activation loop and αEF-helix of one of the monomers nestle between the αF- and αG-helices of the other monomer in the dimer structures. Shown are SLK phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated PDB IDs 2JFL and 2J51, respectively, both bound to triazole inhibitor DKI, Chk2 PDB ID 2CN5 bound to ADP, LOK PDB ID 2 J7T bound to SU11274, DAPK3 PDB ID 2J90 bound to pyridone 6, p70S6K1 PDB ID 3A60 bound to staurosporine, and OSR1 PDB ID 3DAK bound to AMPPNP. One monomer is shown in surface representation and the other in ribbon representation with bound nucleotides shown as sticks pink. Angles between the monomers and dimeric interface contacts vary significantly.

Curiously, the last two hallmarks of the active state are created by a swap of the activation segments of Aurora A resulting in a dimer conformation that has not been previously reported for this protein. In the C-lobe, W313 that would typically interact with P297 and P298 in monomeric Aurora A, now interacts with the identical Pro residues of the other Aurora A monomer. Lastly, the E299–R371 salt bridge is also domain swapped Figure 3A.

Since autophosphorylation is considered a crucial regulation mechanism for protein kinases, the biological meaning of such a dimer structure becomes immediately apparent. While trans-activation through domain-swapped dimers seen in X-ray structures has been proposed for a number of kinases Figure 3–figure supplement 1 Oliver et al., 2006, 2007; Pike et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2009, a recent report on Aurora A and Chk2 suggesting a strict intramolecular autophosphorylation of the activation segment for both enzymes has fueled controversy on this topic Dodson et al., 2013. Another puzzle is the fact that the activation-segment swapped dimers in the literature Figure 3–figure supplement 1 show both monomers to be either in the inactive or active kinase conformations, and a number of these structures are either bound to an inhibitor or already phosphorylated.

In contrast we find an asymmetric dimer within the unit cell with monomer I showing complete electron density for the activation segment while monomer II is missing residues 283–288 Figure 2B, red and blue, respectively. In addition, only monomer I has the perfect geometry of the conserved hydrogen bond network found in a catalytically prone kinase between residues D256, K258, and T292 Figure 3A. Therefore we speculated that monomer I may be the enzyme molecule recognizing monomer II as its substrate.

As a first and only crude test of this hypothesis, we used targeted MD TMD simulations to model the target hydroxyl for autophosphorylation of the domain-swapped activation segment towards the γ-phosphate of AMPPCP Figure 3B to address the question whether it is even physically possible that the hydroxyl can approach the γ-phosphate of AMPPCP. Only T288 of monomer II proposed as the substrate molecule above with a more flexible activation loop segment can be rearranged at a close distance to the γ-phosphate of AMPPCP without displacing the AMPPCP from its original position Figure 3B. Functional evidence for intermolecular autophosphorylation within the swapped dimer

Neither the crystallographic dimer nor the TMD simulations are compelling evidence for intermolecular autophosphorylation within such a swapped dimer. To answer the first obvious question whether a swapped dimer exists in solution, we performed small-angle X-ray scattering SAXS and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation AUC experiments on dephosphorylated Aurora A in the absence and presence of TPX2 Figure 4. A significant amount of dimer was detected for Aurora A and the relative concentration was independent of the presence of TPX2. Importantly, the fact that separate peaks for the dimer and monomer were observed in a sedimentation velocity run reveals a slow interconversion rate between dimer and monomer. Fitting of the SAXS data required inclusion of 9 dimer of the shape of our X-ray structure, supporting the notion that the swapped dimer seen in X-ray crystallography exists in solution in agreement with the AUC data. Protein solubility prohibited determination of the KD, but from both the concentration dependence observed in AUC as well as SAXS experiments one can estimate that the KD is above 300 μM.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 4. TPX2-bound domain-swapped Aurora A forms a stable dimer in solution.

A Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation data show discrete peaks for monomer and dimer. TPX21 25 does not increase the percentage of Aurora A dimer in solution. It is unclear why there is an increased dimer concentration for the kinase-dead Aurora A D274A mutant. B Small-angle X-ray scattering SAXS data show an increase in dimer concentration with increased Aurora A amounts. All data were collected in the presence of 500 μM AMPPCP in kinase assay buffer. deP, dephosphorylated.

The existence of the dimer in solution is essential but not sufficient for an intermolecular autophosphorylation mechanism. To directly investigate the mechanism, functional assays were performed. First, we designed two Aurora A constructs that differed in activity and length. D274A is a kinase-impaired version Wan et al., 2008 that is unable to autophosphorylate within our reaction time frame Figure 5A, middle panel. Since the N- and C-terminal truncations do not affect activity Figure 5–figure supplement 1, this trick allowed for easy simultaneous detection of wild type and kinase-impaired Aurora A. While Aurora A125 392 D274A cannot phosphorylate itself, equal concentrations of dephosphorylated wild type Aurora A122 403 and Aurora A125 392 D274A lead to comparable phosphorylation rates for both proteins, demonstrating an intermolecular autophosphorylation mechanism for Aurora A Figure 5A, right panel. Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 5. Mechanism of autophosphorylation.

A The kinetics of autophosphorylation was monitored by SDS-PAGE and Western blot of 25 μM Aurora A122 403 WT or 25 μM Aurora A125 392 D274A. WT Aurora A can phosphorylate catalytically dead D274A Aurora A intermolecularly. To account for Aurora A s dynamic range, time points up to 300 s were diluted 50-fold and the rest of the time points were diluted 225-fold. B Dilution to 1 μM protein from a stock solution of 200 μM Aurora A TPX2 shows much faster autophosphorylation kinetics than from a lower concentrated stock solution 20 μM TPX2 revealing that autophosphorylation occurs within the long-lived dimer. All experiments were carried out at 25 C in kinase assay buffer in the presence of 5 mM ATP.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 5 figure supplement 1. Dephosphorylated Aurora A125 392 can autophosphorylate as efficiently as Aurora A122 403.

SDS-PAGE and Western blot of 25 μM Aurora A122 403 WT or 25 μM Aurora A125 392 show that both proteins can autophosphorylate to similar extents, suggesting that impaired kinetics in Figure 5A are due to the D274A mutation and not the length of the protein construct. To account for Aurora A s dynamic range, time points up to 300 s were diluted 50 and the rest of the time points were diluted 225. All experiments were carried out as described in Figure 5A. deP: dephosphorylated; P: phosphorylated.

The fact that the dimer is long lived as identified by AUC triggered a second independent test of the functional relevance of this swapped dimer. The rate of autophosphorylation was measured for samples of 1 μM Aurora A prepared by dilution from 200 μM and 20 μM stock solutions. Although the final protein concentration in both samples is the same, much faster autophosphorylation was detected for the sample diluted from the more highly concentrated stock solution Figure 5A. Since the latter sample contains a higher concentration of this slowly dissociating dimer, this experiment directly demonstrates dimer-dependent autophosphorylation. TPX2 strongly accelerates autophosphorylation, in agreement with previous reports Eyers et al., 2003, and as seen for peptide phosphorylation Figure 1B and Figure 1–figure supplement 4. Notably, this intermolecular autophosphorylation again proceeds via the long-lived swapped dimer Figure 5B. We note that although necessary, the dimer is not sufficient for autophosphorylation, because the catalytically impaired D274A mutant shows a high percentage of dimer Figure 4A. Clearly, TPX2 triggers a conformational change that results in a catalytically active dimer.

As the third line of evidence, we aimed at designing a mutation that would weaken the swapped dimer formation and therefore autophosphorylation without compromising the kinase activity of the phosphorylated monomer towards peptides. Realization of this thought experiment is challenging because most of the intermolecular interactions for the dimer are present as corresponding intramolecular contacts in the monomer Figure 3A. We rationalized that a C290A mutation could work because C290 of one monomer contacts Y334 of the αG-helix of the other monomer, while in phosphorylated monomeric Aurora A, C290 contacts K143, W277, L289, and G291 Figure 6A,B. The C290A mutation indeed results in a primarily monomeric form Figure 6C that also has severely impaired autophosphorylation activity Figure 6D. However, once phosphorylated, C290A has nearly normal catalytic activity towards the AP substrate Figure 6E, buttressing the functional role of the swapped WT dimer for autophosphorylation. Particularly striking is the observation that in a 1:1 mixture of dephosphorylated WT and C290A mutant, WT autophosphorylation precedes C290A phosphorylation in the early reaction time course Figure 6D, right and inset but phosphorylation kinetics are identical at later time points. Such kinetic behavior is expected for a model of initial autophosphorylation between two dephosphorylated molecules within the swapped dimer and the subsequent taking over of intermolecular autophosphorylation by newly phosphorylated enzyme molecules. This latter reaction is much faster, suggesting atomistic differences in comparison to the swapped dimer reaction. The C290A mutant is incapable of forming a hybrid swapped dimer between one molecule each of dephosphorylated C290A and WT protein, explaining the lag in its phosphorylation kinetics relative to WT.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 6. A mutant at the dimer interface C290A disrupts the swapped-dimer formation and autophosphorylation without affecting the activity of the phosphorylated Aurora A C290A monomer.

A C290 of monomer I light pink spheres packs against Y334 of the αG-helix of monomer II. Other residues within a 4.5 Å radius of C290 in monomer I are shown as red spheres. B In the monomeric, phosphorylated Aurora A PDB ID 1OL7, C290 light orange does not contact the αG-helix contact residues within a 4.5 Å radius are shown as orange spheres. C Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation of 100 μM dephosphorylated deP Aurora A C290A 500 μM AMPPCP in kinase assay buffer shows that this protein is predominately monomeric in solution. D The kinetics of autophosphorylation was monitored by SDS-PAGE and Western blot of 25 μM Aurora A122 403 WT or 25 μM Aurora A125 392 C290A as described in Figure 5. C290A mutant has impaired autophosphorylation, but is readily phosphorylated by WT Aurora A. E Activity of the phosphorylated P, monomeric C290A towards AP peptide 0.7 0.1 s 1 is comparable to that of the WT protein 1.0 0.2 s 1.

DOI: 25 is necessary and sufficient for binding to Aurora A

TPX21 43 had been identified as essential for Aurora A activation and protection from PP1, PP2A, or λPP-directed dephosphorylation Eyers et al., 2003; Tsai et al., 2003; Satinover et al., 2004. This finding was further substantiated by an X-ray structure of TPX21 43 bound to phosphorylated Aurora A Bayliss et al., 2003 Figure 7–figure supplement 1. In this structure, TPX26 23 was seen in an extended conformation, whereas TPX230 43 formed a regular helix that was proposed to be crucial in protecting Aurora A from phosphatase-mediated T288 dephosphorylation. Surprisingly, in our dimer structure, we could only visualize TPX24/6 20/22 Figure 2A,B and Figure 7–figure supplement 1, and the previously seen helical part was completely missing.

To investigate this unexpected result, we designed and functionally characterized the interplay between two peptides, TPX21 25 and TPX225 45, and Aurora A. First, isothermal titration calorimetry ITC showed that TPX21 25 bound to Aurora A with the same affinity as longer versions TPX21 147 or TPX21 45 and did not discriminate between the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states of the protein Figure 7A. On the other hand, no signal was detected for TPX225 45 with Aurora A in ITC. Second, TPX21 25 binding could trigger an increase in activity of dephosphorylated Aurora A towards peptides and autophosphorylation data not shown. In contrast, TPX225 45 had no effect on Aurora A activity. Third, TPX21 25 could protect Aurora A from λPP-directed dephosphorylation as well as TPX21 45, whereas no protection was found for TPX225 45 Figure 7B. These functional data suggest that the first 25 amino acids of TPX2 are primarily responsible for both activation of the enzyme and protection from dephosphorylation.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 7. The N-terminal half of TPX21 25 is the minimal region needed for binding to Aurora A.

A Isothermal titration calorimetry ITC measurements conducted with various TPX2 constructs show that TPX2 binds with similar affinity to either the phosphorylated P or the dephosphorylated deP Aurora A and that the minimal length required for binding encompasses the first 25 residues of TPX2. B At the functional level, TPX21 25 can protect Aurora A from λ protein phosphatase λPP -directed dephosphorylation to the same extent as TPX21 45.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 7 figure supplement 1. The first 25 amino acids of TPX2 bind similarly to either dephosphorylated or phosphorylated Aurora A.

Superposition of TPX2 from the dephosphorylated Aurora A red TPX2 light pink and the phosphorylated Aurora A not shown TPX2 magenta PDB ID 1OL5 shows that the N-terminal half of TPX2 binds similarly to both proteins whereas the C-terminal half of TPX2 only binds to phosphorylated Aurora A that is monomeric in the X-ray structure, but not to the dimeric, dephosphorylated Aurora A. The dotted line represents missing electron density for residues TPX223 29.

DOI: figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpointFigure 7 figure supplement 2. Two conserved tyrosines of TPX2 nestled inside a hydrophobic pocket in Aurora A trigger allosteric activation.

A Y8 and Y10 of TPX2 make extensive contacts with residues lining αB- and αC-helices in Aurora A. B Superposition of TPX2 bound to Aurora A with the C-terminal tails of several AGC kinases reveals equivalent positioning of Phe of the FxxF hydrophobic motifs in the conserved kinases hydrophobic pockets. Right: a zoom into this highly conserved protein/protein interaction motif used for allosteric regulation. We note that while for most AGC kinases this interaction occurs via its own C-terminal tails, in the evolutionarily younger Aurora A kinase, this regulation is mediated by interaction with a second binding partner, TPX2 Davis et al., 2008.

The functional role for the first 25 residues in TPX2 makes sense from a comparison to the regulation of other human protein kinases Gold et al., 2006; Kannan et al., 2007; Keshwani et al., 2012; Arencibia et al., 2013. This specific interaction between a hydrophobic groove at the junction of the αB/αC-helices in the N-lobe of kinases and a short sequence called the hydrophobic motif Tyr/Phe-X X -Tyr/Phe from either another partner or from its own C-terminal tail, seems to be a conserved regulatory mechanism across the AGC family Figure 7–figure supplement 2 Zhang et al., 1994. For CMGC kinases, the hydrophobic groove is occupied by activating cyclin proteins, as originally reported for cyclin binding to the N-lobe of Cdk2 which leads to reorientation of the activation loop and αC-helix into an active conformation Jeffrey et al., 1995 similar to the effect of TPX2 on Aurora A. In MAPK, activity is increased by binding of the proteins own C-terminal tails into this hydrophobic groove Baumli et al., 2008. In the tyrosine kinase TK family, an N-terminal fragment that precedes the kinase domain of c-KIT, MET, and Ephrin nestles inside the hydrophobic pocket, and autoinhibits the kinases Chan et al., 2003; Mol et al., 2003, 2004; Davis et al., 2008; Eathiraj et al., 2011. In the EGFR members of the TK family, this hydrophobic motif is used as a docking point for kinase activation through dimerization Zhang et al., 2006; Jura et al., 2011. This striking conservation of a very specific recognition mechanism across evolutionarily divergent kinase families suggests that Y8 and Y10 of TPX2 nestled inside the hydrophobic αB/αC pocket in Aurora A are likely the key triggers for kinase activation Figure 7–figure supplement 2. Conclusions

In this work, we characterized two distinct molecular activation mechanisms of Aurora A: autophosphorylation and allosteric activation through TPX2 binding. Because of the controversy about the autophosphorylation mechanism of protein kinases Oliver et al., 2006, 2007; Pike et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2009; Lochhead, 2009; Dodson et al., 2013; Hu et al., 2013, we felt the need for multiple lines of evidence. Our aim was to determine the structure of a dephosphorylated enzyme/substrate complex ready for autophosphorylation. The swapped dimer is indeed asymmetric, with one monomer playing the role of the enzyme and the other that of the substrate. In the substrate molecule, the hydroxyl group of T288 is in principle capable of reaching the γ-phosphate of AMPPCP bound to the enzyme monomer as shown by TMD simulations. Domain-swapped dimers have been solved for a number of protein kinases and questioned for their relevance or crystal artifacts Dodson et al., 2013. To address such a critique directly, we showed a long-lived dimer in solution. Importantly, using three biochemical tricks of i a mixture between wild type and dead mutant and ii a serial dilution, and iii a C290A mutant with severely impaired dimer formation and autophosporylation but nearly normal peptide phosphorylation activity in its phosphorylated monomeric state, we could directly demonstrate an intermolecular autophosphorylation mechanism within this long-lived dimer.

Our combined biochemical, thermodynamic, structural, and computational data resolve the controversy about the molecular mechanism s of autophosphorylation in Aurora A by directly measuring the process of autophosphorylation and linking it to a long-lived functional dimer of dephosphorylated Aurora A. This is in sharp contrast to the mechanism of intramolecular autophosphorylation put forward by Dodson et al. 2013 based on measuring the kinetics of peptide phosphorylation using an automated microchip assay as indirect readout, and not by monitoring autophosphorylation. While the experiments in Dodson et al. 2013 are conceptually correct, there are a number of errors in the experimental setup and data analysis. Michaelis–Menten equations applied to analyze all data cannot be used because Michaelis–Menten conditions are not met, since the peptide concentration of 3 μM is not much higher than the enzyme concentrations used. Competition of free enzyme for the peptide versus another enzyme molecule is not included in the scheme. The peptide concentration is far below its KM and ATP hydrolysis is faster under these conditions than peptide phosphorylation producing ADP concentrations that cause significant and time-dependent enzyme inhibition DK, unpublished. Finally, knowledge of the slow dissociation of the dimer and its consequences for the measured kinetics Figure 5B exposes another source for incorrect data interpretation since the experiments in Dodson et al. 2013 were started by serial dilutions from a high enzyme stock solution. The ongoing discussions on a large collection of functional, structural, and computational data on autophosphorylation in protein kinases underscore both the evolution of differential regulation mechanisms and the difficulty of elucidating these complex biological mechanisms.

Our findings may have more general implications for the family of eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinases. A number of swapped dimer structures have been solved from this enzyme class, and while Dodson et al. 2013 argued that these dimers are crystallographic artifacts such as Chk2, our correlation between a domain-swapped dimer and its functional relevance would instead suggest that the reported structures are mechanistically meaningful. For direct evidence the functional relevance of these dimer structures would need to be assessed, as has been reported by elegant experiments for Chk2 Oliver et al., 2006; Pike et al., 2008. Interestingly, most of the known swapped dimers sit in an inactive conformation using all structural hallmarks for an active kinase discussed in Figure 2 Figure 3–figure supplement 1. However, a few dimers capture all active-state structural signatures Figure 3–figure supplement 1, LOK and Chk2 Oliver et al., 2006; Pike et al., 2008. All previously reported Aurora A dimers are in inactive conformations PDB IDs 2BMC Fancelli et al., 2005, 3DJ5, and 3DJ6, while in our new structure both Aurora A molecules are in the active conformation with one monomer serving as the enzyme molecule and the other as the substrate.

The functional effect of autophosphorylation is a 100-fold increase in the catalytic activity of Aurora A. While this catalytic boost is comparable to other Ser/Thr kinases Hagopian et al., 2001; Prowse and Lew, 2001; Adams, 2003, the more surprising result has been our finding that TPX2 binding activates dephosphorylated Aurora A to similar levels. This is again in contrast to previous reports of additive effects from the two distinct activation mechanisms Dodson and Bayliss, 2012. Our results point to a classic allosteric regulation mechanism where either phosphorylation in the activation loop or TPX2 binding in the conserved remote hydrophobic groove shifts the equilibrium far towards the active state.

While the work here has only been concerned with in vitro experiments, it may provide insight into the regulatory roles of Aurora A in the cellular context. Immunofluorescence data have shown that the centrosome-associated Aurora A pool is mainly phosphorylated, whereas the spindle-associated and TPX2-bound Aurora A is dephosphorylated Tyler et al., 2007; Scutt et al., 2009; Sloane et al., 2010; Zeng et al., 2010. In parallel, a recent study on the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of Aurora A kinase, AIR-1, showed that spindle-microtubule associated Aurora A was not phosphorylated and could nonetheless carry on centrosome-independent microtubule formation Toya et al., 2011. In light of our new findings that TPX2 fully activates dephosphorylated Aurora A, the previous in vivo experiments can be re-interpreted as kinase-activity dependent functions of spindle-microtubule associated Aurora A, and not a kinase-independent function Toya et al., 2011.

Our in vitro data together with previous in vivo results suggest that nature has evolved two distinct regulation mechanisms for Aurora A in different locations within the cell: autophosphorylation as activation in the centrosomes to promote phosphorylation of downstream targets, and TPX2-mediated activation at the spindle microtubules promoting Aurora A activity to another subset of downstream targets. This hypothesis is supported by the differential timing of Aurora A and TPX2 availability. Aurora A kinase levels are available as early as S-phase and peak in the G2 phase Dutertre et al., 2002; Liu and Ruderman, 2006. On the other hand, TPX2 levels peak in the prometaphase/spindle formation stage that follows the G2 phase Gruss et al., 2002; Eckerdt and Maller, 2008; Macurek et al., 2008. Our findings help shed light on an elegant strategy for fine-tuning cellular kinetics that provides more complex regulation in higher organisms.

We finally want to raise the question whether Aurora A autophosphorylation is physiologically relevant in cells or whether phosphorylation-mediated activation is primarily accomplished by upstream kinases. While we do not have a conclusive answer to this challenging question, which has been tackled for a number of other protein kinases, we discuss several conjectures. Although the upstream PAK1 kinase can phosphorylate Aurora A at T288, autophosphorylation appears to be the essential mode of activation because PAK1 inhibition does not abolish cell division but Aurora A inhibitors do Zhao et al., 2005; Liu and Ruderman, 2006; Kelly et al., 2011. Are the in vitro autophosphorylation kinetics reported here compatible with the known phosphorylation kinetics of Aurora A during the cell cycle. Our data imply that the initial rate of Aurora A autophosphorylation is very slow because this reaction occurs via the long-lived swapped dimer between two dephosphoryated Aurora A molecules. Further autophosphorylation displays a strong sigmoidal character revealing much faster kinetics of Aurora A phosphorylation by an already phosphorylated Aurora A molecule Figures 5 and 6. In light of the increased local concentration of Aurora A in the centrosomes Glover et al., 1995 although the exact concentration is not known, our measured autophosphorylation kinetics is qualitatively in line with the progression of Aurora A T288 phosphorylation during the 3–4 h of G2/M duration in HeLa cells at 37 C Crosio et al., 2002; Littlepage and Ruderman, 2002; Ohashi et al., 2006. Materials and methodsCloning and purification of Aurora A kinase

TEV-cleavable, His6-tagged Aurora A kinase, either long 122–403 or short 125–392 constructs, were cloned into pET28a and expressed in Rosetta 2 DE3 E. coli cells Stratagene for 13–15 h at 21 C. Cells were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 min, resuspended in buffer A, and sonicated in the presence of EDTA-free protease inhibitor cocktail and DNAse for 4 min 20 s on, 20 s off, 3.0 V. Lysates thus obtained were filtered using a 0.22 μm filtering unit and passed through a NiNTA column. The protein was eluted at 20 buffer B and Aurora A kinase fractions were pooled and TEV-cleaved overnight at 4 C in a 5 kDa dialysis cassette that was exchanged against buffer C. Cleaved Aurora A was passed through another nickel column to remove any uncleaved reactants and His6-TEV-protease, and then purified to homogeneity through a 26/60 S200 size exclusion column. Protein thus produced was aliquoted and flash-frozen before being stored at 80 C and used for kinase assays. Mutant Aurora A122 403 T288V was also purified the same way. The phosphorylation of all Aurora A samples including mutant forms used here were quantitatively confirmed by mass spectrometry MS.

Dephosphorylated Aurora A kinase was obtained through a λPP co-expression system. Codon-optimized Aurora A122 403 in pET28a and untagged λPP in T7-7 plasmid were co-transformed in BL21 DE3 cells and spread on Kan/Amp 2 YT plates. The most robust colony was used for a 2 YT pre-culture and later on to inoculate a 1 L culture to an OD of 0.2. Cells were induced with 0.6 mM IPTG for 5 h at 37 C. It was noticed that although Aurora A could grow reasonably well in LB media, λPP could not; hence, the choice of 2 YT media for all co-expression needs. Purification involved the NiNTA column, followed by overnight TEV cleavage and GST-λPP treatment, in tandem NiNTA-GST columns and finally a 26/60 S200 size exclusion column. MS was used to confirm that Aurora A kinase was completely dephosphorylated. At the end of the purification, Aurora A was dialyzed against buffer C, flash-frozen with liquid nitrogen into 1 mL aliquots and stored at 80 C.

The buffers used were:

Buffer A: 50 mM TrisHCl pH 8.0, 300 mM NaCl, 40 mM imidazole, 20 mM MgCl2, 10 vol/vol glycerol

Buffer B: 50 mM TrisHCl pH 8.0, 300 mM NaCl, 500 mM imidazole, 20 mM MgCl2, 10 vol/vol glycerol

Buffer C: 20 mM TrisHCl pH 7.0, 200 mM NaCl, 20 mM MgCl2, 5 mM TCEP, 10 vol/vol glycerol

Buffer D: 135 mM NaCl, 3 mM KCl, 8 mM Na2HPO4, 1.5 mM KH2PO4, 5 mM TCEP, 10 vol/vol glycerol, pH 7.40

Buffer E: 135 mM NaCl, 3 mM KCl, 8 mM Na2HPO4, 1.5 mM KH2PO4, 5 mM TCEP, 10 vol/vol glycerol, 10 mM glutathione, pH 7.40

Typical yields were 8–10 mg of phosphorylated Aurora A and 45–50 mg of dephosphorylated Aurora A expressed in the presence of λPP per liter of E. coli culture.In vitro kinase assays

Aurora A, either phosphorylated/dephosphorylated wild type or mutant protein, was mixed with either AP APSSRRTTLCGTL, Kemptide LRRASLG, or Lats2 ATLARRDSLQKPGLE, in the absence or presence of 50 μM TPX2 in kinase buffer 20 mM TrisHCl, 200 mM NaCl, 3 vol/vol glycerol, 20 mM MgCl2, 1 mM TCEP, pH 7.50. These substrates comprise the consensus sequence for Aurora A R/K/N -R-X- S/T -B where B is any hydrophobic residue with the exception of Pro Ferrari et al., 2005; Ohashi et al., 2006; Sardon et al., 2010. Peptides were ordered through Genscript. The reaction was initiated with the addition of 5 mM ATP. Then 5 μl time points were collected, resuspended in 10 μl 6 vol/vol trichloroacetic acid in water to quench the reaction, and neutralized with 50 μl 100 mM KH2PO4, pH 8.0 to provide the appropriate pH for nucleotide separation. The mixture was then passed through a 0.22 μm SpinX column to remove any protein precipitation. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC and an ACE 5 C18-AR, 100 Å pore size column, were used to separate nucleotides as well as peptides. For nucleotide runs, 2 μl of the aforementioned mixture was sufficient for analysis, whereas for the peptide runs the optimal injection volume was 20 μl. Nucleotide runs were routinely performed to ensure no unproductive hydrolysis was occurring during the experiment. An isocratic elution run in 100 mM KH2PO4, pH 6.0 was performed for this purpose. For the peptide runs, a gradient of 0–30 of elution buffer lasting 10 min at 0.4 mL/min was sufficient to separate phosphorylated from non-phosphorylated species. The running buffer was 0.1 TFA vol/vol in water, while the elution buffer was 100 acetonitrile. Representative peptide RP-HPLC traces are shown in Figure 1–figure supplement 5. Lastly, to ensure full saturation of Aurora A by TPX2 and test these proteins were well behaved, a dose-dependence curve of the effect of TPX2 on Aurora A as shown in Figure 1–figure supplement 6 was obtained.Isothermal titration calorimetry

All titrations were carried out using Nano ITC TA Instruments and analyzed via the NanoAnalyze software using the independent fit model. Injectant was added in 1 μl volume, every 180 s, with a constant stirring speed at 350 rpm and at 25 C. Prior to ITC titration, both protein and peptide were dialyzed/resuspended in 20 mM TrisHCl, 200 mM NaCl, 3 vol/vol glycerol, 1 mM TCEP, pH 7.50. The concentrations used for each of the runs in Figure 7A were: 35 μM dephosphorylated deP A122 403 280 μM TPX21 147, 48 μM deP A122 403 680 μM TPX21 45, 13 μM deP A122 403 250 μM TPX21 25, 18 μM deP A122 403 250 μM TPX225 45, 20 μM phosphorylated P A122 403 280 μM TPX21 147, 90 μM P A122 403 940 μM TPX21 45, 20 μM P A122 403 300 μM TPX21 25, and 18 μM P A122 403 300 μM TPX225 45.Crystallographic methods

Crystals of dephosphorylated Aurora A122 403 in complex with AMPPCP and TPX21 45 were grown at 18 C by vapor diffusion and the hanging drop method. A 2:1 ratio of protein mixture:mother liquor was obtained by combining 300 μM 10 mg/ml deP Aurora A122 403 1.5 mM AMPPCP 300 μM TPX21 45 with 0.2 M lithium sulfate monohydrate, 0.1 M BisTris, pH 5.5, 25 PEG3350. Similarly, crystals of dephosphorylated Aurora A122 403 in complex with AMPPCP were obtained by mixing a 2:1 ratio of 570 μM 18 mg/ml deP Aurora A122 403 1 mM AMPPCP with mother liquor 0.2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.2 M TrisHCl, pH 7.50, 30 wt/vol PEG3350. These latter crystals were also grown at 18 C by vapor diffusion and the hanging drop method. The protein, peptide, and nucleotide were originally stored in 20 mM TrisHCl, 200 mM NaCl, 10 vol/vol glycerol, 20 mM MgCl2, 1 mM TCEP, pH 7.50.

Diffraction data were collected at 100 K at Advanced Light Source Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory beamlines 8.2.1 and 8.2.2. The details of data collections are listed in Table 1. Data were processed with the automated data reduction program Xia2 Winter, 2010 that is part of the CCP4 suite Winn et al., 2011 and uses iMOSFLM Battye et al., 2011 for integration and Scala Evans, 2006 for scaling. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement CCP4 program Molrep Vagin, 1997 by using an Aurora A kinase structure PDB ID 1MQ4 as a search model. The refinement was carried out with REFMAC5 Murshudov et al., 2011 and phenix.refine Adams et al., 2010, followed by manual rebuilding in Coot Emsley and Cowtan, 2004; Emsley et al., 2010. Targeted molecular dynamics simulations

The crystal structure of dephosphorylated Aurora A bound to AMPPCP and TPX2 PDB ID 4C3P was used as the starting point for building the model presented in Figure 3B. The electron density for the amino acids in the region 283–288 of monomer II was not distinguishable from noise. We used the tools in the software package Modeller 9.11 Eswar et al., 2006 to model the missing residues. The lowest energy model was then used as the starting point for a molecular dynamics simulation run, in which the distance between the oxygen in the sidechain hydroxyl group of T288 and the γ-phosphate of the AMPPCP moiety bound to monomer I was reduced to 3 Å. To achieve this, the structure was parameterized with the CHARMM 22-protein all-atom force field with the CMAP backbone energy correction MacKerell et al., 1998, 2001. The system was solvated in a rectangular box with TIP3 water molecules and neutralized with NaCl counterions. The final simulation box contained approximately 65,000 atoms. Periodic boundary conditions were applied to the simulation box.

After energy minimization, the simulation box was gradually heated to 300 K with a time step of 1 fs while gradually reducing positional restraints in an MD simulation of 2 ns with the software NAMD 2.8 Phillips et al., 2005. The system was then equilibrated for 10 ns in the NPT ensemble T 300 K, p 1.01325 bar with the software NAMD, using the Langevin dynamics method for controlling temperature, and the combined Langevin piston Nose–Hoover method for equilibrating pressure Martyna et al., 1994; Feller et al., 1995. We then used the software GROMACS 4.5.5 Hess et al., 2008 with the steered molecular dynamics functionality as implemented in the extension PLUMED 1.3 Bonomi et al., 2009 to progressively reduce the distance between the hydroxyl group of T288 and the γ-phosphate of the AMPPCP moiety bound to monomer I. This distance was reduced to 3 Å within a simulation run of 2 ns.

aurora kinase activation

Aurora kinase A also known as serine/threonine-protein kinase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AURKA gene. 2 3 Aurora A is a member of a family of.

Molecular mechanism of Aurora A kinase autophosphorylation and its allosteric activation by TPX2

Nov 7, 2012 - All three Aurora kinases are activated by phosphorylation and through the binding of partner proteins, and are targeted for degradation by the.

Intel 82566 Gigabit Driver

Download Intel Network Adapter Driver 17.2 for Windows 7 64-bit. OS support: Windows 7 64-bit. Category: Networking.

intel 82566 gigabit driver

I have a hp desktop dc7700c/pd which is refurbished,running windows XP pro. it came with a windows XP recovery disk, but the network driver intel 82566dm gigabit.

PC Pitstop / Driver Library / / Intel R 82566DC Gigabit Network Connection

Welcome to the PC Pitstop Driver Library, the internet s most complete and comprehensive

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Intel R 82566DC Gigabit Network Connection - Driver Download. Updating your drivers with Driver Alert can help your computer in a number of ways.

The e1000e Linux stable base driver for the Intel PCI-Express gigabit ethernet adapters/connections.

Download Intel Network drivers for Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows XP. On this page you can download Intel 8254x Ethernet Controllers, 82550 Fast Ethernet Controller.

Description Type OS Version Date; Administrative Tools for Intel Network Adapters. Utilities, Tools and Examples. Provides tools and utilities for the network.

Drivers & Software

Download Intel Network Adapter Driver 16.8.1 for Windows 7 32-bit. OS support: Windows 7. Category: Networking.

Intel(R) 82566DC Gigabit Network Connection Driver Download

Intel R 82566DM-2 Gigabit Network Connection - Driver Download. Updating your drivers with Driver Alert can help your computer in a number of ways.

Description

Type

OS

Version

Date

Administrative Tools for Intel Network Adapters

Utilities, Tools and Examples

Provides tools and utilities for the network administrator and other computer professionals.

Utilities, Tools and Examples

DOS

Linux

OS Independent

14 more

20.4.1

Latest

11/2/2015

11/2/2015

Network Adapter Drivers for MS-DOS

Drivers

Provides files for installing ODI and NDIS 2 Intel Ethernet Adapter drivers for MS-DOS.

Drivers

Network Adapter Driver for Windows Server 2008 R2

Installs Ethernet drivers. Includes Intel PROSet for Windows Device Manager, advanced networking services ANS for teaming and VLANs, and SNMP.

Windows Server 2008 R2

Network Adapter Driver for Windows 7

Installs network drivers. Includes Intel PROSet for Windows Device Manager, advanced networking services ANS for teaming and VLANs, and SNMP.

Windows 7

Windows 7, 32-bit

Windows 7, 64-bit

Network Adapter Driver for PCI-E Gigabit Network Connections under Linux

The e1000e Linux stable base driver for the Intel PCI-Express gigabit ethernet adapters/connections.

Linux

3.2.4.2

6/4/2015

6/4/2015

Network Adapter Driver for Windows Server 2008, Final Release

Windows Server 2008 Datacenter x64 Edition

Windows Server 2008 Enterprise x64 Edition

Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems

2 more

18.4

3/19/2015

3/19/2015

WMI Script Documentation

Documentation

This file contains documentation on creating and using WMI scripts with Intel Ethernet Adapters.

Documentation

OS Independent

1.7

5/1/2014

5/1/2014

Network Adapter Drivers for NetWare 6.5

Provides Intel Ethernet adapter drivers for Novell NetWare, Client 32, and ODI.

NetWare 6.5

NetWare

Novell ODI

19.0

3/11/2014

3/11/2014

Network Adapter Driver for Windows Vista, Final Release

Installs Ethernet drivers. Includes Intel PROSet for Windows Device Manager, advanced network services ANS for teaming and VLANs, and SNMP.

Windows Vista 32

Windows Vista 64

Windows Vista

7/23/2013

7/23/2013

Network Adapter Drivers for Windows Server 2003, Final Release

Windows Server 2003 Enterprise x64 Edition

Windows Server 2003 for Itanium-based Systems

Windows Server 2003 Standard x64 Edition

Windows Server 2003

18.3

6/13/2013

6/13/2013

Network Adapter Drivers for Windows XP, Final Release

Installs network drivers. Includes Intel PROSet for Windows Device Manager, advanced networking services ANS for teaming and VLANs, and SNMP.

Windows XP Professional x64 Edition

Windows XP

IBABUILD – BIOS Image Utility

Firmware

IBABuild utility for BIOS developers to create an Intel Boot Agent image for inclusion in a BIOS supporting Intel Ethernet LAN silicon.

Firmware

16.1

12/12/2011

12/12/2011

Network Adapter Driver for Gigabit PCI Based Network Connections for Linux

Gigabit Linux base driver for Intel PRO/1000 PCI and PCI-X family of adapters

8.0.35

10/17/2011

10/17/2011

Network Adapter Drivers for 64-bit Windows XP for Intel Itanium processor based systems

Installs Network Adapter Drivers and Intel PROSet for Device Manager only on Intel Itanium processor based systems.

Windows XP 64-bit Edition

11.2

5/23/2011

5/23/2011

Network Adapter Drivers for Windows 2000, Final Release

Installs Ethernet drivers. Includes Intel PROSet for Windows Device Manager, Advanced Networking Services ANS, and SNMP.

Windows 2000 Advanced Server

Windows 2000 Server

Windows 2000

14.0

Current

11/18/2010

11/18/2010

WIN_PCIe.zip

Intel 82571EB, 82572EI, 82573E/V/L, 82562GT, 82562V, 82566 Gigabit Ethernet Controllers, – Windows XP Drivers and WinCE Network Interface Install  

Windows CE

Windows XP Embedded

1.0

6/28/2007

6/28/2007

20.2

Previously Released

8/25/2015

8/25/2015

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Feedback.

Download Intel Network Adapter Driver 20.2 for Windows 7 Network Card.

Driver 76 Cheats For Psp Go

We need Your feedback. Is Midnight Club: Los Angeles any good. Would you recommend it to a friend. What do you like. What do you NOT like. Midnight Club: Los Angeles.

driver 76 cheats for psp go

Submit    for Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories

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Getting and Saving a Maverick Helicopter

Ever since it launched, gamers have struggled to gain access to helicopters in Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories. Below is a guide for how to get one of the helicopters in this game the PSP version, and how to store it so you can keep on using it. Methods with and without cheats on False Idols where you can save it and Calm Before the Storm where you can t are given below.

There are two levels where getting a helicopter is a possibility. There is only one where you can save the helicopter for future use, however. Weâ ll look at the least useful one first.

MISSION: Calm Before The Storm:

There is a Maverick helicopter in this mission. The objective in the actual level is to follow the helicopter as it zips around Liberty City. First, it stops at a construction yard in Hepburn Heights. Continue to follow it until it lands on the roof in Chinatown.

According to the mission, you would go upstairs to the objective marker to trigger the next stage of the mission. Ignore this, and get on a motorbike the PCJ600 is best and physically drive it upstairs. This may take some maneuvering. You now donâ t have to worry about the objective marker, as you are on a vehicle so it will not trigger. You can now skirt around the roof, get off your bike at the helicopter, which you can then get in and fly off. Because you avoided the objective marker, you have effectively glitched the game into letting you past.

Unfortunately, thereâ s no way to now save the helicopter for future use, but you can fly around the immediate area.

Note: you will be able to continue until you crash, or if you fail the mission by shooting or injuring Massimo Torini or his pals. You are also limited to the area around Torini roughly Chinatown, as the game thinks you have â lostâ him if you stray too far.

MISSION: False Idols:

This is the big one. On this level, you can successfully hijack a helicopter, return it to your garage and store it for future use. It takes a lot of effort to get though you can cheat to get it, but is definitely worth it, even if just to impress your friends.

The False Idols level involves killing three radio celebrities.

With Cheats:

This strategy is credited to strapwood. To begin, enter the following cheat codes:

Cars Drive on Water: CIRCLE, X, DOWN, CIRCLE, X, UP, L1, L1

Pedestrians Follow You: DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE

Traction/Jump Cheat: L1, UP, LEFT, R1, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, X

Make sure you have a sniper rifle in your arsenal. Begin the mission and check your map for the objective indicator at Francis International Airport. Get a vehicle and wait for pedestrians to get in with you they should do, with the pedestrian cheat activated. Drive towards the objective indicator, enter the water to cross when possible - you can use the jump cheat for this. As you approach the island, you should see the helicopter hovering. Donâ t get too close to the island until the helicopter is away from any buildings â once you get near to the island, it automatically lands â you donâ t want it to land on a building as you will not be able to get it.

Exit the water and you should see the arrow pointing to the helicopter. Get out and run to the helicopter. You should still have all your pedestrians with you. Kill all of the pedestrians following you except for one. Try to get into the helicopter and you will see it is locked. Your pedestrian will still try to get in, however you may need to push the helicopter so that there is enough room for the pedestrian. Once he is inside, quickly move around the front of the helicopter or the side window and shoot the pedestrian in the head with the sniper rifle. If done correctly, you should be able to press Triangle on the pedestrianâ s side, and he will fall out. You can then enter the open door by pressing Triangle again.

The helicopter is on fire, because you shot it, so once you are inside, use the Health cheat to keep it alive:

Health Cheat: L1, R1, X, L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1.

You can then fly to your garage on Staunton Island. You first need to wedge the door open, so get a motorbike such as the PCJ600 and park it half in half out. Land the helicopter as close as you can in front of the garage. You can then get out and push it towards the door. Once it is in position to keep the door open alone, get the bike and push it the final way inside. The helicopter has to be diagonal to fit in. A good tactic is to have the body of the helicopter in line with the door, but the tail sticking out of the side. If you then push it into the garage, it wraps around the wall of the garage and should fit inside. Make sure the door shuts, then save the game to store it in there permanently. Getting it out can be tricky too, and requires the same technique as above, but making sure it saves is the main thing.

Withot Cheats:

This strategy is credited to jam8tone.

Getting the Maverick without using cheats requires even more patience. Start the False Idols mission, making sure you have a Fire Engine in your garage other vehicles work, but the Fire Engine has the strength and speed required for the task, as well as a low car or motorbike, and plenty of RPGs. Once you have started the mission, you are supposed to go to Phil Cassidyâ s gun shop, so this makes sense as the place to get your RPGs.

Turn right out of Cassidy s gun shop, and go down the road, taking the second left at the crossroads at Belleville Park, having passed underneath the skyscraper. You will soon reach a dead end with two billboards. Park your fire engine by the billboards and stand on the white traffic island/roundabout, with your RPG equipped. Look out over the water towards the bridge and you should see the helicopter flying alongside it. It will disappear behind the buildings, so look to the right, down the road you just came down from the gun shop and you should soon see the helicopter emerge from behind one of the buildings â it will be about 30 seconds from when it first disappeared from view.

It will fly right at you, so use your RPG to take it out. Once this has been done, get in your Fire Engine and push the wreckage back to your garage. You need to avoid damaging your Fire Engine too much, as if it blows up the helicopter will disappear. You also need to keep the helicopter in view at all times or at least near to view or it disappears. You will fail the mission as you are pushing the helicopter back, but you can ignore this as it does not matter.

To get back to your garage, you will have to maneuver carefully to get the helicopter down the alleyway. Spin it so that the main body of the helicopter is in line with the garage door, but also so the rotor at the back is sticking out to the left of the garage door. Nudge it forward until it is close to the door. You need to leave enough space so you can move anything else out of your garage. Do this, but leave your low car or bike wedging the door open in the corner.

Making sure the helicopter is still in the correct position and at the right angle, get it even closer, before using a lot of power to ram it towards the door. The tail of the helicopter should hit the wall of the garage, spinning the wreckage around so that the tail is sticking out of the door. Use the Fire Truck to hit the tail and send it round to the right, making the helicopter nestle snugly in the garage.

Move back and drive the wedge car or bike out so that the garage door shuts. You should now have a saved Maverick to use. Getting it out of the garage is a little tricky, but repeat the tactics from before and you should be able to get it.

Note: this will take a few tries to get right, but keep the helicopter in sight as much as you can because the main risk is it disappearing.

Unlock Mission Bonuses

Play the following missions and complete the indicated task or reach the specified level and you ll unlock the bonus.

Unlock Taxi Missions Bonus:

Steal a taxi and press the Up button to begin the Taxi Driver missions. When you have dropped off 100 passengers the Bickle 76 cab will become unlocked.

Unlock Vigilante Mission Bonus:

To begin the Vigilante missions steal a Police car and press the Up button. When you have reached level 12 you ll get 150 Max Armor points. Use the Spawn Rhino code to easily accomplish this mission.

Unlock Ambulance Mission Bonus:

To begin the Ambulance missions steal an ambulance and press the Up button, when you reach level 12 you ll unlock the Infinite Sprinting bonus.

Unlock Firefighter Mission Bonus:

To begin the Firefighter missions steal a fire truck and press the Up button, when you reach level 12 you ll unlock the Fireproof bonus.

Unlock Food Delivery Mission Bonus:

When you are at the Noodle Punk shop in Portland or the Well Stacked Pizza shop in Staunton Island begin the Delivery missions and reach level 9 and your Maximum Health will increase by 25 points.

Unlock Avenging Angels Mission Bonus:

When you have completed Avenging Angels mission in Portland the Super Angel bike which is bulletproof will become unlocked

Unlock Tourism Missions Bonus:

When you have completed the Tourism missions the Super Land Stalker will become unlocked.

Citizen Arrest Bonus:

Get an easy 50 when you see a cop chasing someone by catching that person and giving them a punch. If you punch the person more than once you ll end up in trouble with the cop when he s caught up.

Mission Unlockables

Complete the following tasks to unlock the corresponding effects.

Unlock Infinite Ammo:

Beat the game 100.

Get 10,000:

Complete ALL 26 unique jumps.

Unlock M60 Machine Gun:

Beat ALL Rampages.

Unlock Underwear Costume:

Complete 1 Unique Jump.

Unlock Cox Mascot Costume:

Beat SlashTV 2 times.

Unlock Dragon Jump Suit Costume:

Complete Crazy 69 mission.

Unlock King Jumpsuit Costume:

Complete ALL Story mode missions.

Unlock Antonio Costume:

Complete the Making Toni mission.

Unlock Avenging Angel s Costume:

Complete the Frighteners mission.

Unlock Tuxedo Costume:

Complete A Date with Death mission.

Unlock Sweats Costume:

Complete A Walk in the Park mission.

Goodfella Costume:

Complete the Overdose of Trouble mission.

Unlock Wise Guy Costume:

Complete Shoot the Messenger mission.

Unlock Leone s Costume:

Drive to your house at the start of the game and walk into the clothes icon.

Unlock Extra 25 Max Health Points:

Complete Level 10 in Noodle Delivery missions at Noodle Punk in Portland.

Unlock Upgraded Sanchez:

Complete ALL 10 courses in the Bump Grinds at the dirt bike course in Portland.

Complete Level 10 in Pizza Deliveriy missions at Joe s Pizza in Staunton Island.

Unlock Hero Costume:

Beat Level 15 of the Avenging Angels missions in Shoreside Vale.

Unlock Overalls Costume:

Complete The Portland Chainsaw Masquerade mission.

Getting Busted Won t Cost Money:

Complete Avenging Angels missions in Staunton Island.

Unlock 150 Max Armor Points:

Complete Level 12 in Vigilante missions.

Unlock Fireproof Toni:

Complete Level 12 in Firefighter missions.

Unlock Infinite Sprint:

Complete Level 12 in Ambulance missions.

Unlock Bickle 76:

Drop off 100 Passengers in the Taxi

Unlock Bullet Proof PCJ 600:

In the Biker Heat mission take Waynes Bike.

Unlock Micro SMG able to be purchased at Ammu-Nation:

Complete the Don in 60 seconds mission.

Unlock Hellenbach GT:

Beat level 4 of Car Salesman sidequest.

Generate 4000 at Capital Autos:

Beat Level 6 of Car Salesman sidequest.

Generate 4x the Cash for Cars in the Scrapyard:

Complete the Scrapyard Motorcycle Challenge.

Generate a Boat Speeder at Portland Ferry Docks:

Beat the game 100

Generate cash from Hogs Cogs :

Sell 40 motorcycles in Belleville Park, Staunton Island.

Unlock Multiplayer Skins:

Complete the Driving Mr Leone mission.

Unlock Rhino Tank in Ft. Staunton:

Complete the game 100.

Unlock Super Angel Bike Bulletproof generated at Portland safe-house:

Completing Avenging Angels missions in Portland

Unlock Super Land Stalker Bulletproof generated at Shoreside Vale safe-house:

Completing Tourism missions.

Unlock Vehicles Take Double Damage:

Unlock PCJ:

Complete Love Media.

Unlock V8 Ghost:

Hidden Package Rewards

Complete the following tasks to unlock the corresponding effect.

Unlock Pistol at Safe House:

Find 10 Packages

Unlock shotgun at ALL Safe Houses:

Find 20 Packages

Generate a Armour at ALL Safe Houses:

Find 30 Packages

Generate a MP5 at ALL safe houses:

Find 40 Packages

Generate a Python at ALL safe houses:

Find 50 Packages

Generate a M4 at ALL Safe Houses:

Find 60 Packages

Generate a Sniper Rifle at ALL Safe Houses:

Find 70 Packages

Generate a Flamethrower at ALL Safe Houses:

Find 80 Packages

Generate a Rocket Launcher at ALL Safe Houses:

Find 90 Packages

Generate 50,000 at ALL Safe Houses:

Find 100 Packages

Codes

Never Wanted:

L1, L1, Triangle, R1, R1, X, Square, Circle

Money Cheat - 250,000:

L1, R1, Triangle, L1, R1, Circle, L1, R1

Spawn Trashmaster:

Triangle, Circle, Down, Triangle, Circle, Up, L1, L1

Random Ped Outfit:

L1, L1, Left, L1, L1, Right, Sqaure, Triangle

Spawn Rhino:

L1, L1, Left, L1, L1, Right, Triangle, Circle

Faster Clock:

L1, L1, Left, L1, L1, Right, Circle, X

Destroy All Cars:

L1, L1, Left, L1, L1, Right, X, Square

Peds Riot:

L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, Left, Square

Peds Attack You:

L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, UP, Triangle

Peds Have Weapons:

R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, Right, Circle

Faster Gameplay:

R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, Down, X

Slower Gameplay:

R1, Triangle, X, R1, Square, Circle, Left, Right

Perfect Traction:

L1, UP, LEFT, R1, Triangle, Circle, Down, X

Commit Suicide:

L1, Down, Left, R1, X, Circle, Up, Triangle

All Green Lights:

Triangle, Triangle, R1, Square, Square, L1, X, X

Aggressive Drivers:

Square, Square, R1, X, X, L1, Circle, Circle

Have Girls Follow You:

Down, Down, Down, Triangle, Triangle, Circle, L1, R1

Bobble Head World:

Down, Down, Down, Circle, Circle, X, L1, R1

Display Game Credits:

L1, R1, L1, R1, UP, Down, L1, R1

Upside Down Gameplay:

Down, Down, Down, X, X, Square, R1, L1

Upside Up Gameplay:

X, X, X, Down, Down, Right, L1, R1

Change Bike Tire Size:

Circle, Right, X, Up, Right, X, L1, Square

All Vehicles Chrome Plated:

Triangle, R1, L1, DOWN, DOWN, R1, R1, Triangle

Sunny Weather:

L1, L1, Circle, R1, R1, Square, Triangle, X

Clear Weather:

Up, Down, Circle, Up, Down, Square, L1, R1

Overcast Weather:

UP, DOWN, X, UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, L1, R1

Rainy Weather

Up, Down, Square, Up, Down, Circle, L1, R1

Foggy Weather:

Up, Down, Triangle, Up, Down, X, L1, R1

Weapon set 1:

Up, Square, Square, Down, Left, Square, Square, Right

Weapon set 2:

Up, Circle, Circle, Down, Left, Circle, Circle, Right

Weapon set 3:

Up, X, X, Down, Left, X, X, Right

Cars Drive On Water

Circle, X, Down, Circle, X, Up, L1, L1

White Cars:

X, X, R1, Circle, Circle, L1, Triangle, Triangle

Black Cars:

Circle, Circle, R1, Triangle, Triangle, L1, Square, Square

Flying cars

FLYING CARS it s so you and the others you re playing with or the computers can fly

L 2, R 2, left,right,circle,square,triangle

Many bikes in 1 garage

First get some bikes.Put 1 in your garage halfway inside and halfway outside because if you get one side too much it will close.Then put the others inside after you put them put the one halfway in and halfway out.

NOTE:you can do this with bikes only.you can also put many bikes with this cheat.

PLS. RATE. TNX

I am gonna post a video on how to do this so check back regularly.

All men will be your team and follow you

Men will follow you and be your team. While you fight the men will help you to fight. While gameplay press the following keys enter this code. Down,down,down,tringel,tringel,cirlcel,L1,R1.

If you enterd the keys right the following messege will aper.

psp

Added 22 Sep 2011, ID 4114, by Guest

GTA liberty city The damned the the screwed of watever

Helicopter : 3595550100

Full health and armor and guns Baseball bat, Handgun,Sniper rifle, Sniper, Rpg, and more. 4825550100

More guns : 4865550150 handgun knife sniper rifle rpg bottle bombs and more.

Super cool motercycle : 2455550100

Added 21 Jul 2011, ID 4050, by Guest

Added 4 Mar 2011, ID 3907, by Guest

Car going on water

Want to go on water with a vecheil type in this on your PSP o,x,down,o,x,up,L,L now get in a car and go on the water but use motorbikes they can t go on water watch out for more of my cheats from: Daniel covaci

Enjoy cheat

Added 15 Feb 2011, ID 3872, by Guest

Tank

Wanna a tank and never get dostroyed when police are after you type this on your PSP L,L,RIGHT,LEFT,TRAINGLE,O

NOW you have a tank get in press o it s like a connon the tank will never be dostroyed omly when it turns up side down. Also turn connon useing right and left shoot back words you will go faster

Enjoy CHEAT

Added 15 Feb 2011, ID 3871, by Guest

Random Pedestrian Outfit

Wanna change your look. to change your look to a fresh new look enter- L, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, SQUARE, TRIANGLE. It s a really good cheat, you can change your look in a matter of seconds and no-one will no.. have fun cheating..

Added 22 Sep 2010, ID 3627, by Guest

good ones

Added 17 Aug 2010, ID 3573, by Guest

weapon set3

up x x down left x x right

Added 3 Jul 2010, ID 3478, by Guest

Change The Size Of The Moon.

To change the size of the moon shoot it with the sniper rifle and it will change size every time if you shoot it too mutch it will get smaller instead of bigger

Press these buttons during only gameplay to activate the cheat:

armor cheat

L,R,O,L,R,X,L,R

health cheat

L,R,X,L,R,sqaure,L,R

Weapons Cheat

Enter these during gameplay

Up,o,o,down,left,o,o,right. Or

Up,x,x,down,left,x,x,right. Or

Up,triangle,triangle,down,left,triangle,triangle,right.

Lesbian bikers

When you get on the pcj-600 on the bike salesman missions, the passenger will sometimes say I need somethig that will impress the chicks. This will happen even when there is a woman on the bike.

Why are you reporting this submission.

LATEST FORUM POSTS

Page 2 of 4

Some good cheats

Here are some cheats

Circle, Circle, R1, Triangle, Triangle, L1, Square, Square

Really amazing.

On the mission Caught in the Act, I almost destroyed the boat. I made it to the end with barely enough life left. But what really amazed me is that in the end the boat was on fire during the part when Sal and the mayor are fighting. It did not blow up. Please somebody join my team Dark Star. Also rate. Thanks.

bullet proff cars

Here are 5 bullet proff cars 1 beat bikers heat take waynes portland bike 2 beat avevnging angels leval 15 portland then beat torist misson shorevale then beat the misson where salvester wants you take his limo to him insted bring it in your garrage blow it up you fail the misson but you get a bullet proff limo stanton island and one more the tank whitch is fire proff and bulet proff thanks for taking your time to read this well help you alot.

wanred lvl.

If you happen to be by your house while you save then go inside and save the game,your wanted lvl should disappear

fire-proof

If you do enough fire men missions you will be able to go through fire without taking damage.

Fix a broken car

Drive a broken car into your garage. Leave the garage an wait until the door closes. Go back in and the car should be fixed. This workes for all the Grand Theft Auto games.

Ghero1

the best

This is all I no

Health: L, R, X, L, R, square, L, R

Armor: L, R, O, L, R, X, L, R

Raise wanted two stars : L, R, square, L, R, triangle, L, R

Erase wanted: L, L, triangle, R, R, X, square, O

Money 25,000 : L, R, triangle, L, R, O, L, R

my best

Blow up all cars

L,L,left,L,L,right,X,square

Chainsaw

Up,x,x,down,left,x,x,right

Aggressive Drivers

SQUARE, SQUARE, R1, X, X, L1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE

Money Cheat:

X,O,O,DOWN,UP

Cool Car

Ultimate Destroyer

Enter that then hit other cars

Useful cheats

Health cheat

L,R,X,L,R,square,L,R

Armor

L,R,circle,L,R,X,L,R

Weapon cheats

Katana

Up,circle,circle,down,leftcircle,circle,right

Knife

Up,square,square,down,left,square,square,right

Obviously the weapon cheats have more weapons,but these re the hand weapons you recieve with them

L,L,left,L,L,right,X,square

Underwear

Wanna unlock it.go to Portland and then to the ferry,once there look for the junp if you nail it a message will pop up telling you have unlocked them

Super car jump

Note: You need to put the cheat, Perfect Traction, in to perform this cheat. The cheat code is L1, UP, LEFT, R1, Triangle, Circle, Down, X. Once you get that cheat in, go find a fast car like a police car. Hold X down so you can go fast You don t have to go very fast for this trick, then tap the down button. If you got it right, you would jump really high. NOTE: This work really well off of jumps.

Happy Gaming. I hope this works

Make Your Car Jump Really High

Note: You must have the cheat called Perfect Traction on to do this stunt. The cheat is L1, UP, LEFT, R1, Triangle, circle, DOWN, X. When You have this cheat turned on, go find a fast car, like a police car. Note: This cannot work on a motorcycle, just in cars. Hold X down to go fast. When You are at least half as fast as the car can go, tap the down button. If you did it right, your car will jump pretty high. NOTE: This is really fun to do off of jumps.

Armor cheat

L1,R1,O,L1,R1,X,L1,R1

Get into the staunton island underground subway even if you have

All you need is to get in staunton island health centre. If the bridge is still broke, drve off it but put this cheat in first:

CARS DRIVE ON WATER:

O,X,Down,O,X,Up,L1,L1

Once that is done drive off the end of the bridge. If you tip upside down quickly keep hold of left anolog stick and Square. You should tip back. It may flip a couple of times and if you health falls below half, put this cheat in:

FULL HEALTH:

L1,R1,X,L1,R1,Square,L1,R1

Once you on the sea, park up on one of the ports and get out but be care full you don t fall in the sea.Leave some space to get out.then get in the car at the top of the steps and drive right up the road to the hospital.jump off the wall and go to wards the westurn carpark. Get on the bike and bust through the barrior in the construction area.keep going up the ramp to the first higher roof, you might make a couple of mistakes but thats why they put rubbers on pencils.just start again till you get it right.the drive on the roof towards north the along east and go slowly on to the little wite roof.reverse your bike to the edge of the side but don t fall off and drive into the corner windows.wait a sec and keep your bike balanced and you get about 50 when you land.you should be in a subway.if not you did it wrong you have to go full rev to the south cornor.if your stuckthen comit suicide and start the cheat again.

To commit suicide do this cheat:

COMMIT SUICIDEL DEATH:

L1,Down,Left

All cars crome plated

Triangle, R, L, down, down, R, R, Triangle

Bobble Head

Down, down, down, 0, 0, X, L, R

Bigger moon

Do the wepons cheat any one get the sniper rifle and shoot the moon

Jump.

When in A CAR NOT A BIKE, GO IN ATLEAST half speed then tap down and x if you did it right your car will jump

Page 3 of 4

If you push these buttons in this order you will get a lot of money:

L R Triangle L R Circle L R

P.S.: You can also do this as many times as you wany. ;

Many codes

Added 28 Jan 2007, ID 1134, by pro

Weapon cheats

1: up, circle, circle, down, left, circle, circle, right

2: up, square, square, down, left, square, square, right

3: up, x, x, down, left, x, x, right

RIDE WITH ME

Ride With Me

X,Square,Down,X,Square,Up,R1,R1

Calls the nearest ped to get in your car or get on your bike. Only gives a confirmation message if you re in a vehicle and there s a ped nearby.

Deafting pual sindacco mission

Put in the cheat pedestrians follow you down,down,down,triangle,triangle,circle,L,R and the foriellas wont do any thing to you when you kill them, it worked for me

Aggressive Drivers

SQUARE, SQUARE, R1, X, X, L1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE

Weapon set 1

Weapon set 1

UP, SQUARE, SQUARE, DOWN, LEFT, SQUARE, SQUARE, RIGHT

Money Cheat

X,O,O,DOWN,UP

250.00

During the game press L,R, triangle, L, R circle, L,R

Increase wanted level

LL1,R1,TRIANGLE,L1,R1,CIRCLE,L1,R1

Loads of GTA cheats

GTA cheats by monkey_boy12

Unlock Weapon set 1

Enter during gameplay: UP, SQUARE, SQUARE, DOWN, LEFT, SQUARE, SQUARE, RIGHT

Unlock Aggressive Drivers

Unlock Destroy All Cars

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, X, SQUARE

Unlock Weapon set 2

Enter during gameplay: UP, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, LEFT, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, RIGHT

Unlock Weapon set 3

Enter during gameplay: UP, X, X, DOWN, LEFT, X, X, RIGHT

Unlock Money Cheat 250,000

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Unlock Full Armor Blue Bar

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1, X, L1, R1

Unlock Full Health Red Bar

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, X, L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1

Unlock Raise Wanted Level

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1

Unlock Clear Wanted Level

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, TRIANGLE, R1, R1, X, SQUARE, CIRCLE

Unlock Cars Drive On Water

Enter during gameplay: CIRCLE, X, DOWN, CIRCLE, X, UP, L1, L1

Unlock White Cars

Enter during gameplay: X, X, R1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, L1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE

Unlock Black Cars

Enter during gameplay: CIRCLE, CIRCLE, R1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, L1, SQUARE,

SQUARE

Unlock Raise Media Attention

Enter during gameplay: L1, UP, RIGHT, R1, TRIANGLE, SQUARE, DOWN, X

Unlock Spawn Trashmaster

Enter during gameplay: TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, UP, L1, L1

Unlock Random Ped Outfit

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, SQUARE, TRIANGLE

Unlock Never Wanted

Unlock Sunny Weather

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, CIRCLE, R1, R1, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, X

Unlock Clear Weather

Enter during gameplay: UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, UP, DOWN, SQUARE, L1, R1

Unlock Overcast Weather

UEnter during gameplay: P, DOWN, X, UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, L1, R1

Unlock Rainy Weather

Enter during gameplay: UP, DOWN, SQUARE, UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Unlock Foggy Weather

Enter during gameplay: UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, UP, DOWN, X, L1, R1

Unlock Spawn Rhino

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE

Unlock Faster Clock

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE, X

Unlock Peds Riot

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, LEFT, SQUARE

Unlock Peds Attack You

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, UP, TRIANGLE

Unlock Peds Have Weapons

Enter during gameplay: R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE

Unlock Faster Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, DOWN, X

Unlock Slower Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: R1, TRIANGLE, X, R1, SQUARE, CIRCLE, LEFT, RIGHT

Unlock Perfect Traction

Enter during gameplay: L1, UP, LEFT, R1, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, X

Unlock Commit Suicide

Enter during gameplay: L1, DOWN, LEFT, R1, X, CIRCLE, UP, TRIANGLE

Unlock All Green Lights

Enter during gameplay: TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, R1, SQUARE, SQUARE, L1, X, X

Unlock Have Girls Follow You

Enter during gameplay: DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Unlock Bobble Head World

Enter during gameplay: DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, X, L1, R1

Unlock Display Game Credits

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, L1, R1, UP, DOWN, L1, R1

Unlock Upside Down Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, X, X, SQUARE, R1, L1

Unlock Upside Up Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: X, X, X, DOWN, DOWN, RIGHT, L1, R1

Unlock Change Bike Tire Size

Enter during gameplay: CIRCLE, RIGHT, X, UP, RIGHT, X, L1, SQUARE

Unlock All Vehicles Chrome Plated

Enter during gameplay: TRIANGLE, R1, L1, DOWN, DOWN, R1, R1, TRIANGLE

Different Moon

When it s night-time, take out your Sniper Rifle and look for the Moon in the

Sky. Zoom in and shoot the Moon. The Moon will increase in size the more you

Shoot it and then go back to it s original small state when you shot it enough

Times.

Sprint Trick

Just tap default X button to sprint instead of holding it down. You cycle the

Sprint so it s like you never start. This can be done at any time; whether

During a mission or exploration. Moon Increases in Size

Times. Smiley face

On Statunton Island there is a parking lot on the top northeast corner. Look for

A white staircase inbetween the parking garage and the parking lot entraces on

The southside. Go up the staircase and jump on the short cement railing. Then

Turn east and jump up on the roof over looking the parking lot Liberty City

Tree Building and run across the roof to the other side where you will see a

Courtyard. Jump down into the courtyard and run to the very end of the courtyard

To the northwest. Then on a wall at the end of a courtyard has a white picture

Of a smiley face and says Hello Again. This is the same spot where in Grand

Theft Auto III, where a sign says You arn t supposed to be here.

Hidden Package Rewards

Pistol at Safehouse - Find 10 Packages

Generate a shotgun at all safe houses - Find 20 Packages

Generate a armour at all safe houses - Find 30 Packages

Generate a MP5 at all safe houses - Find 40 Packages

Generate a python at all safe houses - Find 50 Packages

Generate a M4 at all safe houses - Find 60 Packages

Generate a sniper rifle at all safe houses - Find 70 Packages

Generate a flamethrower at all safe houses - Find 80 Packages

Generate a rocketlauncher at all safe houses - Find 90 Packages

Generate 50,000 at all safe houses - Find 100 Packages

Unlock Infinite Sprint

Beat Ambulance Missions Level 12

Unlock Bickle 76

Unlock Fireproof Toni

Complete Level 12 In Firefighter Missions

Unlock Extra 25 Max Health Points

Complete Level 10 in Pizza Deliveriy Missions at Joe s Pizza in Staunton Island

Complete Level 10 in Noodle Delivery Missions at Noodle Punk in Portland

Unlock 150 Max Armor Points

Complete Level 12 In Vigilante Missions

Unlock Super Angel Bike Bulletproof generated at Portland safe-house

Unlock Getting Busted Won t Cost Money

Completing Avenging Angels missions in Staunton Island

Unlock Super Land Stalker Bulletproof generated at Shoreside Vale safe-house

Completing Tourism missions

Unlock Upgraded Sanchez

Complete all ten courses in the Bump Grinds at the dirt bike course in

Portland

Unlock Underwear costume

Complete 1 Unique Jump

Unlock Generate cash from Hogs Cogs

Sell 40 motorcycles in Belleville Park, Staunton Island

Unlock Hero Costume

Beat Level 15 of the Avenging Angels missions in Shoreside Vale

Unlock Generate 4000 at Capital Autos

Beat Level 6 of Car Salesman

Unlock Hellenbach GT

Beat level four of the car salesman sidequest

Unlock Multiplayer Skins

Complete the Driving Mr Leone mission. Unlock Generate 4x the cash for cars in

The Scrapyard

Complete the Scrapyard motorcycle challenge

Unlock Bullet Proof PCJ 600

Take Waynes Bike in Biker Heat Mission. Unlock Cluckin Bell Outfit

Beat SlashTV 3 times

Unlock M60 machine gun

Beat all rampages. Unlock King Jumpsuit Costume

Finsh all story mode missions

Unlock V8 Ghost

Complete Love Media

Unlock PCJ

Complete Love Media

Unlock Infinite Ammo

Unlock Rhino Tank in Ft. Staunton

Complete the game 100

If you like theese cheats you can eat me fort thank you

Lots of bullets

Well this isnt really a cheat but when your playing scooter shooter and if you die or complete that mission you get to keep the bullets I got 5000-9969 for the sub machine gun when I played two times

Talk on the phone with no phone

When your cell phones ringing press L then quickly get on a bike and then get off and you should be talking with no phone.

Note: if this doesnt work don t be surprised because it doesnt always work anyway.

No more pay in spray

If your running low on and you really want to fix this car youve busted up instead of pay in spra, go to a garage not bomb or anything and put your car in there and shoot it until it s on fire and then run away then go back and it s all fixed.

Repair car for free

If you have a car you really like and it s damaged instead of loosing 100 just go to a garage and shoot your car until it s on fire and then run and let the garage close and then it s fixed.

Gta liberty citie stories by sacco

Cheat Codes

Enter these during gameplay

Cheat Effect

UP, SQUARE, SQUARE, DOWN, LEFT, SQUARE, SQUARE, RIGHT Weapon set 1

UP, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, LEFT, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, RIGHT Weapon set 2

UP, X, X, DOWN, LEFT, X, X, RIGHT Weapon set 3

L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1 Money Cheat 250,000

L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1, X, L1, R1 Full Armor Blue Bar

L1, R1, X, L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1 Full Health Red Bar

L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1 Raise Wanted Level

L1, L1, TRIANGLE, R1, R1, X, SQUARE, CIRCLE Never Wanted

CIRCLE, X, DOWN, CIRCLE, X, UP, L1, L1 Cars Drive On Water

X, X, R1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, L1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE White Cars

CIRCLE, CIRCLE, R1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, L1, SQUARE, SQUARE Black Cars

L1, UP, RIGHT, R1, TRIANGLE, SQUARE, DOWN, X Raise Media Attention

TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, UP, L1, L1 Spawn Trashmaster

L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, SQUARE, TRIANGLE Random Ped Outfit

L1, L1, CIRCLE, R1, R1, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, X Sunny Weather

UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, UP, DOWN, SQUARE, L1, R1 Clear Weather

UP, DOWN, X, UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, L1, R1 Overcast Weather

UP, DOWN, SQUARE, UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, L1, R1 Rainy Weather

UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, UP, DOWN, X, L1, R1 Foggy Weather

L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE Spawn Rhino

L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE, X Faster Clock

L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, X, SQUARE Destroy All Cars

L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, LEFT, SQUARE Peds Riot

L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, UP, TRIANGLE Peds Attack You

R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE Peds Have Weapons

R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, DOWN, X Faster Gameplay

R1, TRIANGLE, X, R1, SQUARE, CIRCLE, LEFT, RIGHT Slower Gameplay

L1, UP, LEFT, R1, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, X Perfect Traction

L1, DOWN, LEFT, R1, X, CIRCLE, UP, TRIANGLE Commit Suicide

TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, R1, SQUARE, SQUARE, L1, X, X All Green Lights

SQUARE, SQUARE, R1, X, X, L1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE Aggressive Drivers

DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, L1, R1 Have Girls Follow You

DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, X, L1, R1 Bobble Head World

L1, R1, L1, R1, UP, DOWN, L1, R1 Display Game Credits

DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, X, X, SQUARE, R1, L1 Upside Down Gameplay

CIRCLE, RIGHT, X, UP, RIGHT, X, L1, SQUARE Change Bike Tire Size

TRIANGLE, R1, L1, DOWN, DOWN, R1, R1, TRIANGLE All Vehicles Chrome Plated

Triangle, Triangle, Triangle, Up, Up, Right, L, R Upside Up

How to fly a car

To fly cars you must complete all missions and go to your house and press L,R,X,O,trangle,X,square

GTA :LCS

Weapon Set 1 UP, SQUARE, SQUARE, DOWN, LEFT, SQUARE, SQUARE, RIGHT

Weapon Set 2 UP, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, LEFT, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, RIGHT

Weapon Set 3 UP, X, X, DOWN, LEFT, X, X, RIGHT

Get 250000 L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Armor L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1, X, L1, R1

Health L1, R1, X, L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1

Raise Wanted Level L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1

Never Wanted L1, L1, TRIANGLE, R1, R1, X, SQUARE, CIRCLE

Sunny Weather L1, L1, CIRCLE, R1, R1, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, X

Clear Weather UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, UP, DOWN, SQUARE, L1, R1

Overcast Weather UP, DOWN, X, UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, L1, R1

Rainy Weather UP, DOWN, SQUARE, UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Foggy Weather UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, UP, DOWN, X, L1, R1

Spawn Rhino L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE

Faster Clock L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE, X

Destroy All Cars L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, X, SQUARE

Random Ped Outfit L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, SQUARE, TRIANGLE

Peds Riot L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, LEFT, SQUARE

Peds Attack You L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, UP, TRIANGLE

Peds Have Weapons R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE

Faster Gameplay R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, DOWN, X

Slower Gameplay R1, TRIANGLE, X, R1, SQUARE, CIRCLE, LEFT, RIGHT

Perfect Traction, Down Car Hop L1, UP, LEFT, R1, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, X

Media Attention Meter L1, UP, RIGHT, R1, TRIANGLE, SQUARE, DOWN, X

Commit Suicide L1, DOWN, LEFT, R1, X, CIRCLE, UP, TRIANGLE

All Green Lights TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, R1, SQUARE, SQUARE, L1, X, X

Aggressive Drivers SQUARE, SQUARE, R1, X, X, L1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE

White Traffic X, X, R1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, L1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE

Black Traffic CIRCLE, CIRCLE, R1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, L1, SQUARE, SQUARE

Spawn Trashmaster TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, UP, L1, L1

Cars Drive On Water CIRCLE, X, DOWN, CIRCLE, X, UP, L1, L1

New: Ride With Me X, SQUARE, DOWN, X, SQUARE, UP, R1, R1

Follow Me DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Bobble Head World DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, X, L1, R1

Upside Down DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, X, X, SQUARE, R1, L1

Upside Down X, X, X, DOWN, DOWN, RIGHT, L1, R1

Unlock Multiplayer Stuff 1 UP, UP, UP, SQUARE, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, R1, L1

Unlock Multiplayer Stuff 2 UP, UP, UP, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, X, L1, R1

Unlock Multiplayer Stuff 3 UP, UP, UP, X, X, SQUARE, R1, L1

Unlock All Multiplayer Stuff UP, UP, UP, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Change Bike Tire Size CIRCLE, RIGHT, X, UP, RIGHT, X, L1, SQUARE

Display Game Credits L1, R1, L1, R1, UP, DOWN, L1, R1

All Vehicles Chrome Plated TRIANGLE, R1, L1, DOWN, DOWN, R1, R1, TRIANGLE

Warning: Do not save after using cheats. Some of these can t be disabled.

This is all the cheats that I know work

Money 25,000 : L, R, triangle, L, R, O, L, R

Free car fix

Go to your OWN garage and park in there, then get out walk off until the garage door shuts then go back and it is fixed

Page 4 of 4

Game cheats

Unlockable - Destroy All Cars

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, X, SQUARE

Unlockable - Raise Wanted Level

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1

Unlockable - Clear Wanted Level

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, TRIANGLE, R1, R1, X, SQUARE, CIRCLE

Unlockable - Cars Drive On Water

Enter during gameplay: CIRCLE, X, DOWN, CIRCLE, X, UP, L1, L1

Unlockable - White Cars

Enter during gameplay: X, X, R1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, L1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE

Unlockable - Sunny Weather

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, CIRCLE, R1, R1, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, X

Unlockable - Clear Weather

Enter during gameplay: UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, UP, DOWN, SQUARE, L1, R1

Unlockable - Overcast Weather

Enter during gameplay: P, DOWN, X, UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, L1, R1

Unlockable - Bobble Head World

Enter during gameplay: DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, X, L1, R1

Unlockable - Display Game Credits

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, L1, R1, UP, DOWN, L1, R1

Unlockable - Black Cars

Enter during gameplay: CIRCLE, CIRCLE, R1, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, L1, SQUARE, SQUARE

Unlockable - Raise Media Attention

Enter during gameplay: L1, UP, RIGHT, R1, TRIANGLE, SQUARE, DOWN, X

Unlockable - Spawn Trashmaster

Enter during gameplay: TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, UP, L1, L1

Unlockable - Random Ped Outfit

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, SQUARE, TRIANGLE

Unlockable - Never Wanted

Unlockable - Aggressive Drivers

SQUARE, SQUARE, R1, X, X, L1, CIRCLE, CIRCLE

Unlockable - Upside Down Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, X, X, SQUARE, R1, L1

Unlockable - Upside Up Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: X, X, X, DOWN, DOWN, RIGHT, L1, R1

Unlockable - Change Bike Tire Size

Enter during gameplay: CIRCLE, RIGHT, X, UP, RIGHT, X, L1, SQUARE

Unlockable - All Vehicles Chrome Plated

Enter during gameplay: TRIANGLE, R1, L1, DOWN, DOWN, R1, R1, TRIANGLE

Unlockable - Rainy Weather

Enter during gameplay: UP, DOWN, SQUARE, UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Unlockable - Foggy Weather

Enter during gameplay: UP, DOWN, TRIANGLE, UP, DOWN, X, L1, R1

Unlockable - Spawn Rhino

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE

Unlockable - Faster Clock

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE, X

Unlockable - Peds Riot

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, LEFT, SQUARE

Unlockable - Peds Attack You

Enter during gameplay: L1, L1, R1, L1, L1, R1, UP, TRIANGLE

Unlockable - Peds Have Weapons

Enter during gameplay: R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE

Unlockable - Faster Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, DOWN, X

Unlockable - Slower Gameplay

Enter during gameplay: R1, TRIANGLE, X, R1, SQUARE, CIRCLE, LEFT, RIGHT

Unlockable - Perfect Traction

Enter during gameplay: L1, UP, LEFT, R1, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, X

Unlockable - Weapon set 1

Enter during gameplay: UP, SQUARE, SQUARE, DOWN, LEFT, SQUARE, SQUARE, RIGHT

Unlockable - Weapon set 2

Enter during gameplay: UP, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, LEFT, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, RIGHT

Unlockable - Weapon set 3

Enter during gameplay: UP, X, X, DOWN, LEFT, X, X, RIGHT

Unlockable - Money Cheat 250,000

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, TRIANGLE, L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Unlockable - Full Armor Blue Bar

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, CIRCLE, L1, R1, X, L1, R1

Unlockable - Full Health

Enter during gameplay: L1, R1, X, L1, R1, SQUARE, L1, R1

Unlockable - Commit Suicide

Enter during gameplay: L1, DOWN, LEFT, R1, X, CIRCLE, UP, TRIANGLE

Unlockable - All Green Lights

Enter during gameplay: TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, R1, SQUARE, SQUARE, L1, X, X

Unlockable - Have Girls Follow You

Enter during gameplay: DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, L1, R1

Unlockable - Different Moon

When it s night-time, take out your Sniper Rifle and look for the Moon in the sky. Zoom in and shoot the Moon. The Moon will increase in size the more you shoot it and then go back to it s original small state when you shot it enough times.

Unlockable - Sprint Trick

Just tap default X button to sprint instead of holding it down. You cycle the sprint so it s like you never start. This can be done at any time; whether during a mission or exploration.

Easter Egg - Smiley face

On Statunton Island there is a parking lot on the top northeast corner. Look for a white staircase inbetween the parking garage and the parking lot entraces on the southside. Go up the staircase and jump on the short cement railing. Then turn east and jump up on the roof over looking the parking lot Liberty City Tree Building and run across the roof to the other side where you will see a courtyard. Jump down into the courtyard and run to the very end of the courtyard to the northwest. Then on a wall at the end of a courtyard has a white picture of a smiley face and says Hello Again. This is the same spot where in Grand Theft Auto III, where a sign says You arn t supposed to be here.

Hint - Hidden Package Rewards

Pistol at Safehouse - Find 10 Packages

Generate a shotgun at all safe houses - Find 20 Packages

Generate a armour at all safe houses - Find 30 Packages

Generate a MP5 at all safe houses - Find 40 Packages

Generate a python at all safe houses - Find 50 Packages

Generate a M4 at all safe houses - Find 60 Packages

Generate a sniper rifle at all safe houses - Find 70 Packages

Generate a flamethrower at all safe houses - Find 80 Packages

Generate a rocketlauncher at all safe houses - Find 90 Packages

Generate 50,000 at all safe houses - Find 100 Packages

Unlockable - Infinite Sprint

Beat Ambulance Missions Level 12

Unlockable - Bickle 76

Drop off 100 Passengers in the Taxi

Unlockable - Fireproof Toni

Complete Level 12 In Firefighter Missions

Unlockable - Getting Busted Won t Cost Money

Completing Avenging Angels missions in Staunton Island

Unlock Super Land Stalker

Completing Tourism missions

Unlockable - Upgraded Sanchez

Complete all ten courses in the Bump Grinds at the dirt bike course in Portland

Unlockable - Generate 4000 at Capital Autos

Beat Level 6 of Car Salesman

Unlockable - Hellenbach GT

Beat level four of the car salesman sidequest

Unlock King Jumpsuit Costume

Finish all story mode missions

Unlockable - V8 Ghost

Complete Love Media

Unlockable - Underwear costume

Complete 1 Unique Jump

Unlockable - Generate cash from Hogs Cogs

Sell 40 motorcycles in Belleville Park, Staunton Island

Unlockable - Hero Costume

Beat Level 15 of the Avenging Angels missions in Shoreside Vale

Unlockable - PCJ

Unlockable - Infinite Ammo

Beat the game 100

Unlockable - Rhino Tank in Ft. Staunton

Complete the game 100

Unlockable - Multiplayer Skins

Complete the Driving Mr Leone mission.

Unlockable - Generate 4x the cash for cars in the Scrapyard

Complete the Scrapyard motorcycle challenge

Unlockable - Bullet Proof PCJ 600

Take Waynes Bike in Biker Heat Mission.

Unlockable - Cluckin Bell Outfit

Beat SlashTV 3 times

Unlockable - M60 machine gun

Beat all rampages.

Unlockable - Extra 25 Max Health Points

Complete Level 10 in Pizza Deliveriy Missions at Joe s Pizza in Staunton Island

Complete Level 10 in Noodle Delivery Missions at Noodle Punk in Portland

Unlockable - 150 Max Armor Points

Complete Level 12 In Vigilante Missions

Unlockable - Super Angel Bike

Completing Avenging Angels missions in Portland

My favorate cheat coades

Drive in water:Circle,X,down,Circle,X,upL,L

Rhino:L,L,left,LL,right,Triangle,Circle

Armor:L,R,Circle,L,R,X

Health:L,R,X,L,R,Square

Money:L,R,Trangle,L,R,Square,L,R

Wepons 2 :O,O,Up,OO,Down,Left,OO,Right

Lots of cheats

Drive on Water

Press Circle, X, Down, Circle, X, Up, L 2. A message will indicate correct entry.

Better Handling Vehicles

Press L, Up, Left, R, Triangle, Circle, Down, X. A message will indicate correct entry. Press Down after this code is enabled to make your car jump.

Spawn rhino

L2, left, L2, right, triangle, circle. A message will indicate correct entry.

Spawn trashmaster

Triangle, Circle, Down, Triangle, Circle, Up, L2. A message will indicate correct entry

all cars are black

Circle x2,R,triangle x2,L,square x2

weapon cheat 1

Up square square down left square square up

wepon set 2

Up circle circle down left circle cirlcle right

weapon set 3

X,x, up, x,x, Down Left, x,x Right

L,R,circle,L,R,X,L,R

Upside Down

Down down down x x square are l

View Media Attention Level

L, Up, Right, R, Triangle, Square, Down, X

Lots Of Cheats for GTA LCS update.

I ve decided to put all the cheats I know into one simple list so it s easier to read and stops you reading the sames over again. So here are all the cheats I know.

--------------------------

Full Health

L, R, Triangle, L, R, Circle, L, R, also works to reoair your vechiale when your in it

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Full Armour:

L, R, circle, L, R, X, L, R

Weapon set 1:

UP, SQUARE, SQUARE, DOWN, LEFT, SQUARE, SQUARE, RIGHT

Weapon set 2:

UP, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, LEFT, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, RIGHT

UP, X, X, DOWN, LEFT, X, X, RIGHT

250,000:

L, R, triangle, L, R, circle, L, R

Never Wanted:

L, L, triangle, R, R, X, square, circle also clear s wanted level

TRIANGLE, R1, L1, DOWN, DOWN, R1, R1, TRIANGLE

L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE

TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, DOWN, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, UP, L1, L1

Cars Drive On Water:

CIRCLE, X, DOWN, CIRCLE, X, UP, L1, L1

CIRCLE, RIGHT, X, UP, RIGHT, X, L1, SQUARE

L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, X, SQUARE

Raise Media Attention:

L1, UP, RIGHT, R1, TRIANGLE, SQUARE, DOWN, X

Commit Suicide:

L1, DOWN, LEFT, R1, X, CIRCLE, UP, TRIANGLE

Get Women To Follow You:

DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE, L1, R1

R1, R1, L1, R1, R1, L1, RIGHT, CIRCLE

Random Ped Outfit:

L1, L1, LEFT, L1, L1, RIGHT, SQUARE, TRIANGLE

L1, L1, CIRCLE, R1, R1, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, X

Rainy Weather:

UP, DOWN, SQUARE, UP, DOWN, CIRCLE, L1, R1

All Green Lights

TRIANGLE, TRIANGLE, R1, SQUARE, SQUARE, L1, X, X

Bobble Heads:

DOWN, DOWN, DOWN, CIRCLE, CIRCLE, X, L1, R1

HAVE FUN.

My Favourite Cheats

Weapons Set 2:

up, square, square, down, left, square, square, right

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Full Health:

L, R, X, L, R, square, L, R

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

L, L, triangle, R, R, X, square, circle

circle, X, down, circle, X, Up, L, L

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Various Cheats

Weapons tier 1

Up,square,square,down,left,square,square,right

For Tier 2, follow the same patern, but with circle instead of square.

For Tier 3, follow the same patern, but with x instead of circle

Health

250,000

L,R,triange,L,R,circle,L,R

Weapons

Cash

L,r,triangle,l,r,circle

Unlocking car crusher and the bomb store

To unlock the car crusher complete hot wheels mission.

To unlock bomb store which is also in herban heights you have to complete mission blowin up dolls.

Callahan bridge and the ferry unlocked

To get the ferry running and callahan bridge finished you have to complete the mission driving Mr. Leone. After that those two things and staunton island will be unlocked.

Cheats

Key: U-up, D-down, -right, X, S-square, T-triangle, O, L- left shoulder button, R- right shoulder button

Weapons Set 1

U,S,S,D,

Weapons Set 2

U,O,O,D,

Weapons Set 3

U,X,X,D,

Get 250,000

L,R,T,L,R,O,L,R

Full Armour

L,R,O,L,R,X,L,R

L,R,X,L,R,S,L,R

Raise Wanted Level 2

L,R,S,L,R,T,L,R

Clear Wanted Level

L,L,T,R,R,X,S,O

Sunny Weather

L,L,O,R,R,S,T,X

Clear Weather

U,D,O,U,D,S,L,R

Overcast Weather

U,D,S,U,D,T,L,R

Rainy Weather

U,D,S,U,D,O,L,R

Foggy Weather

U,D,T,U,D,X,L,R

Spawn Rhino

L,L,,T,O

Destroy All Cars

L,L,,X,S

Random Ped Outfit

L,L,,S,T

Peds Riot

L,L,R,L,L,R,

Peds Attack You

L,L,R,L,L,R,U,T

Commit Suicide

L,D,

Cars Drive On Water

O,X,D,O,X,U,L,L

All multi-player locales

While playing a game, press up,up,up,triangle,triangle,circle,L,R.

Liberty city

Random pedestrian costume L L left L L right square triangle

Tank L L left L L right triangle circle

Weapons 1 up squarex2 down left squarex2 right

Weapons 2 up circlex2 down left circlex2 right

Weapons 3 up x x down left x x right

Armor Cheat

L1, R1, O, L1, R1, X, L1, R1

LATEST FORUM POSTS.

Liberty City Stories Cheats

The latest Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories cheats available anywhere in the universe, brought to you by the gamers at GamesRadar.

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  • Get the latest Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories cheats, codes, unlockables, hints, Easter eggs, glitches, tips, tricks, hacks, downloads, hints, guides, FAQs.
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Sou Patch

Understand global market dynamics, competitors, prospects and partners through in-depth insights using secondary, primary and social media research.

PES 2015 PC Patch Tuga Vicio version 4.0 Features: Licensed teams and Logos: Premier League Full Championship Full Ligue 1 Full Ligue 2 Fu.

The meaning of the soul patch: a brief history

Each health system using Smart Square has a unique web address. Please contact your system administrator if you do not have this information. Typically, you can find.

sou patch

Finally, the Dreamed-of Biological Explanation of The Human Condition that Ends Our Species Underlying Psychosis and Transforms The Human Race.

Floridacentral Credit Union serves nearly 49,000 members and over 1,000 SEGs with 11 west-central Florida branches.

Homepage: What s New. Specials: Create an Account: Log In: Contact Us: OUTSIDE THE WIRE.

Old Time Tomatoes Kit includes 10 different varieties of tomatoes, Our Seed Starting Greenhouse, The Old Time Tomato Grower s Guide, Old Time Tomato Grow Soil.

Venice Apartment, agency that offers a careful selection of Venice apartments and cottages to stay in the most beautiful city in the world.

English 1.69 Critical rebuild for game with both expansions only. Notes: If you have the Diamond Edition GOG distributed, you still need to install this patch.

What does the soul patch mean.

It s a question that s long plagued philosophers of the world s smallest beard. The soul patch appears almost at random, as if a Wooly Willy magnetic pen had dragged it underneath the lip. It s the most ambitiously named facial hair, claiming to give access to soul itself a goatee would never be so brash. But what does it mean.

To understand the soul patch, we have to learn where it comes from.

Defining the soul patch

The true soul patch the one that deserves the moniker isn t compromised by the presence of distracting sideburns, mustaches, or other facial hair. It s a small, tidy nest of hair below the lower lip, and that s it.

A mouche in combination with a goatee or long sideburn may be innovative, but for our purposes, it is not a soul patch.That rules out other contenders to claim the patch. For example, Frank Zappa had a significant soul patch, but it was coupled with a giant mustache so large that he trademarked it. Similarly, the hair below the lip is called the mouche French for fly, but the term mouche is usually used in combination with other facial hair. A mouche in combination with a goatee or long sideburn may be innovative, but for our purposes, it is not a soul patch.

Our terms defined, it s clear where the soul patch came from.

The origin of the soul patch: the jazz dab

The soul patch has its roots in the beatnik fashion of the fifties, when hipsters and artists artfully cultivated hair under their lip. But they got it from jazz culture of the same era. The main popularizer. Dizzy Gillespie, inventor of the jazz dab.

John Birks Dizzy Gillespie was born in 1917, which was perfect timing to popularize the jazz dab in the 40s and 50s. Though he occasionally wore his proto soul-patch with a mustache, when he wore it by itself, it became a distinctive trademark. Soon, it was known as a Dizzy Gillespie beard and was imitated by jazzmen and, eventually, beatniks. Though other artists doubtless wore the look, Dizzy made it famous.

After the 50s, the soul patch began a long retreat, but the seeds of perceived authenticity had been sown. The facial hair was associated with the artistic intensity of the beatniks and jazz. From there, it was easy for the jazz dab to become the soul patch.

An early nineties comeback gives a hairy patch soul thanks in part to Luke Perry

It s hard to pinpoint exactly when people started calling the jazz dab and Dizzy Gillespie beard the soul patch. Of all places, one of the first mentions comes up in National Lampoon, where a character has a little Dizzy Gillespie under-the-lip beard he called his soul patch.

The growth of the goatee in the late 80s and early 90s encouraged experimentation with the beard, but the patch breakthrough hadn t happened yet. From the 70s on, Tom Waits had a soul patch that was occasionally a goatee, and the Blues Brothers wore soul patches that looked a lot like under-lip shadows. There were other soul-patch wearers too, no doubt, but the soul patch was still in search of its champion.

It found one in Luke Perry, thanks to Perry s role in 1992 s Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Ironically, the soul patch was actually fake co-star Kristy Swanson s cat once licked it off and ate it, but the lack of authenticity didn t hurt the soul patch s popularity. Perry s soul patch in Buffy gave a major platform to the bourgeoning facial hair style, and as a reaction to goatee wearers and clean-shaven men, it caught on.

Spy was hip to the term, and the same year it made a cameo in Rick Moody s Garden State, though Moody had to explain that the hair was whiskering a half inch under his lower lip. Successfully reintroduced to the culture, the soul patch began its ascent.

The soul patch makes it big, with a peak in 1999

Perry and Buffy got the patch growing, and from there, nobody could shave it off.

In 1995, Boston Globe reporter Pamela Reynolds was first on the beat. Her interviewees attributed an interest in jazz and a desire to bring facial hair down to its essence as the inspiration behind their soul patches. The soul patch continued to grow in popularity, and in 1998 it was added to copy editing dictionaries.

The next year, it broke out thanks to more celebrity endorsements. In 1999, it was spotted under Mike Piazza s lip, on the ice with Apolo Ohno, and, most notably, on the face of Garth Brooks s alter-ego, Chris Gaines. The celebrity boosts pushed the soul patch into the mainstream. Ski lodges changed their policies to allow instructors to wear soul patches, and by 2003, 4 of men said they donned the look.

The reasoning. It probably has little to do with beatniks, Dizzy Gillespie, or even Tom Waits and Frank Zappa. One 1995 soul-patcher, who grew a patch in after seeing it on TV, put it best:

I just think it looks cool I get a lot of comments. People say, Hey, you missed a spot. But I like it this way.

Princess Lover Game English Patch

Rebellious Princess princess lover game english patch

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This article is about the main character of the Mario franchise. For information about the overall franchise, see here. For the portrayal of Mario in the Super Mario.

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You dare defy me I will marry Flash, Daddy, and you can t stop me.

Jasmine: I ve never done a thing on my own. I ve never had any real friends

Rajah: makes a surprised and offended growl

Jasmine: Except you, Rajah. I ve never even been outside the palace walls.

Sultan: But, Jasmine, you re a princess.

Jasmine: Then maybe I don t want to be a princess any more.

Disney s Aladdin

To the Rebellious Princess, being part of the royal family is overrated: You have no control over the path of your life, your responsibilities are numerous and burdensome or not burdensome enough, you re generally under everyone s thumb, or you re destined to live unhappily in an Arranged Marriage. The only options are to throw off your frilly dress and to run off with the first hero who passes through in old fashioned stories, or set off for Action Girl adventures on her own on the sly in the modern ones.

The Rebellious Princess is usually a teenager, typically brash since it goes hand in hand with being rebellious, and often blonde and/or has a Tomboyish Ponytail. If she s not the hero, quite often she s the hero s love interest. This will sometimes invoke Marry for Love not only as another way for her to rebel, but to also get out of an Arranged Marriage. She usually qualifies as a Royal Who Actually Does Something, and may qualify as a Badass Princess, depending on how far she s willing to go to rebel. Sometimes the Rebellious Princess is the White Magician Girl, but not always: in video games she can also be archer, the Black Magician Girl or the Lady of War. May also be a Politically Active Princess.

When written badly, this trope evokes a spoiled brat who is simply whining about how bad their palatial life is when they have never seen how the lower classes live; their rebellious nature is not based in any actual ethics or logic. For this reason, people who write this trope must remember to give royal status suitable drawbacks.

Somewhat more common in the earlier days of the RPG genre than they are now; their population has dwindled with the reduced number of games involving monarchies.

The Spear Counterpart is the Rebel Prince. Compare Modest Royalty. For characters a little lower on the social hierarchy, see Spirited Young Lady. Might be confused with a Princess in Rags who is forced into not being a princess where the rebellious one chooses not to be.

Contrast Princess Classic, Idle Rich.

Examples:

    open/close all folders 

    Anime Manga 

Lucia Nanami of Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch is the heroine, but doesn t understand nor appreciate her position so she just tries to do what she wants.

Gundam seems to have a fair number of these:

Cagalli Yula Athha in Gundam SEED is de facto the princess of the neutral state of Orb but runs off to wage guerrilla warfare against ZAFT in Africa. She is much less volatile in the sequel, Gundam SEED Destiny.

In G Gundam, we have the tomboyish and willful Maria Louise from Neo France doing lots of un-princess-like things to get the attention of her Knight in League and local Gundam Fighter, George de Sand. After she actually grows up and learns her lesson, Maria doesn t lose her spirit and does what she can to aid George and the Shuffle Alliance.

Relena Peacecraft/Darlian in Mobile Suit Gundam Wing. Even after being made Queen of the World Sphere Alliance, she refuses to go along with Romefeller s plans, makes her own policy instead, and when she can t fully institute it she prefers to leave matters to Treize rather than being a puppet and bowing to the noblemen. Her full and public rejection of the Princess mantle during Endless Waltz which is televised worldwide is her most famous Crowning Moment of Awesome.

If we count the Deikun clan from Mobile Suit Gundam as royalty, then Zeon Zum Deikun s daughter and Char Aznable s / Casval Deikun s sister Sayla Mass/Artesia Deikun fits the trope quite well.

Gundam Unicorn has Audrey Burn, a.k.a. Princess Mineva Lao Zabi, the last survivor member of the Zabi family and heir to the Principality of Zeon, formerly a figurehead used by previous Neo Zeon movements, she s now decided to go out on her own to try to stop another war from breaking out.

Deconstructed with Princess Marina Ismail from Gundam 00. No matter what she tries to do, she s just a figurehead and never really accomplishes much despite her struggles. Until the second season finale, where she starts rebuilding Azhadistan after the war is over.

Princess Fala in Go Lion. She doesn t actually run away, but has to go against her advisors who even tied her up at the start to keep her from piloting the blue lion. Later, she gets her wish to join the team as their Chick.

She takes it a step further in a later episode, ultimately refusing a demand from fellow planetary sovereigns that she take full command of Go Lion. She is at last confident enough to lead a planet and an alliance of planets, but still be just a team member when it comes to the Super Robot, albeit designated as Black Lion s alternate pilot. Of course, her possible romantic feelings for Akira Kogane may play a role in that as well.

The same applies to her Voltron counterpart Allura.

Farnese from Berserk is a deconstruction although she s technically not a princess. She becomes rebellious and pyromaniac because her parents never paid any attention to her when her father instructed her to burn an old toy of hers, her half-brother Serpico remarks that it was the first time her father spoke to her in a year. This earns her the social isolation it would realistically earn her, and she eventually burns down her family s mansion out of frustration. She then gets shipped off to a convent and becomes the leader of the Church Militant because that s all the various nobles and churchmen believe her to be good for.

Princess Ana Medaiyu of Overman King Gainer becomes a willing hostage to have some fun, and play along with going on Exodus with the Yapan. Later she tries to returns, but decides to stay once her father publicly disowns her to protect her from London IMA in case the Duke s line is discontinued, for allowing such a large Exodus to take place.

Being the top-ranked priestess and direct conduit to the Purato god, JuJu of Mahoujin Guru Guru is as close to a princess as you can get without being actual royalty. She opts to run away and seek out the heroes after a Running Gag involving a Clingy MacGuffin makes things too ridiculous to tolerate at home.

Flora Skybloom from Basquash., after feeling the pure hotbloodedness of Dan and the rest of his team from their Bigfoot basketball matches, escapes from her castle, hides her identity and makes her way into his inner circle.

Macross Frontier s Alto Saotome, while not technically royalty nor female, counts. The heir to a well known family of Kabuki actors, he instead went and pursued his dream of becoming a pilot. It also helps that he really does look like a Japanese princess whenever we re shown a flashback of his kabuki days there s a reason he s known as Sakura-hime.

Variation: Candace aka Candy from Candy Candy plays the role quite well, but she s a member of the extremely rich and high-class Andree family only after being adopted by the leader, and against the will of several other members.

Lala from To Love-Ru runs away, to have control over who she marries.

Vision of Escaflowne has Princess Millerna, who rebels against the desire of her father of marrying Dryden Fassa.

Code Geass has a few. Notably, Euphemia li Britannia disapproves of the social Darwinism found throughout The Empire, and makes a point of telling her sister Cornelia something along those lines, hinting that she d even eye the throne at one point if it meant social reform. Lelouch, meanwhile, is literally a Rebel Prince against Britannia.

Played with in Corsair, where Aura is the princess of a pirate clan and already has the freedom most Rebellious Princesses want. She still rebels though, to the point where Canale knocks her out during a major attempt to rescue her because she refuses to place her safety above his own and go ahead without him. She also thinks she is The Hero s love interest, until Ayace callously tells her she can t marry Canale because they re lovers.

Naga the Serpent of Slayers is the missing first princess of the kingdom of Saillune, Gracia Ul Naga Saillune, and the older sister of Amelia, one of the four major protagonists. After witnessing the assassination of her mother, she ran away from home on a quest to learn the ways of the world, become more powerful she doesn t, but that really depends on the media, and drink. The Light Novel series implies that she does return to her home sporadically, and she even stays in contact with her loved ones, but more often than not for financial reasons. The anime more or less states that she hasn t returned at all, which is a large source of well-hidden angst for Amelia.

All this trouble in Sailor Moon started because a certain Moon Princess chose to be with the Earth s Prince, against her entourage s advice.

Defied in Windaria. Veronica is set up to be this but reluctantly carries out her mother s will.

Veronica of Bokura no Kiseki. While mostly mindful of her responsibilities, she was still very easy-going and flouted rules of propriety left and right.

The Secret of Twilight Gemini: Lara is a literal example, as she s the reble leader of the oppressed Geltic Tribe. However, she doesn t find out about her royal lineage until the Elder reveals it to her and Lupin, before the battle to reclaim their ancient homeland.

Queen s Blade: Claudette regards her younger sister, Leina, as such since she s chosen the life of a vagabond, rather than take her rightful place on the throne. Which Claudette absolutely won t tolerate, so she sends their youngest sister, Elina, to find Leina and capture her.

    Comic Books 

Destrii - the Primatrix Destriianatos - from Doctor Who Magazine. A decidedly different take on the trope, in that Destrii s a Dark Action Girl rebelling against her Evil Matriarch mother, and while her people see her as their heroine, she only wants to escape her dystopian homeworld. When she finally does, she has repeated run-ins with the Eighth Doctor, which eventually see her homeworld s nobility overthrown, her mother dead, and Destrii herself slowly starting a Heel-Face Turn under the Doctor s tutelage.

Princess Aura, daughter of Ming The Merciless in Flash Gordon was rebelling all the way back in the 1930s. She was just as determined to marry Flash as Ming was to kill him. The fact that Dale Arden was Flash s love interest simply complicated things more.

Princess Sally from Archie s Sonic the Hedgehog comic. Several times in the comics, most recently her annulled marriage with Patch show her dislike for the duties and protocols associated with her position as princess. And often times she will have a rather stern word about it to the powers that be.

Original Wonder Woman comics. After Steve Trevor crashed on Paradise Island, a contest was held to determine which Amazon would return him to the outside world. Princess Diana wanted to enter the contest but her mother Queen Hippolyta forbade her to do so. Diana entered the contest in disguise and bested all of the other contestants, winning the right to leave.

Ninjette from Empowered is the Rebellious Ninja Princess of her clan.

Adrienne from Princeless is one of seven daughters who have all been locked up in towers waiting for princes to rescue them, but quickly decides to take matters into her own hands and not just break herself out, but also rescue her sisters and usurp their father s throne.

    Fanfiction 

In Red as Fire Harry s mother gave up her inheritance to the Northern throne of dragonkind so she could marry Snape.

    Films Animated 

Outside of the interactive electronic oeuvre, practically every female protagonist in the Disney Animated Canon since The Black Cauldron has been of this type Ariel, Jasmine, Pocahontas, etc. etc. etc., possibly as a response to feminists complaining about how Disney Princesses had been treated previously almost exclusively as damsels in distress.

Even Aurora to some extent; once she finally learns that she is a princess and will be subject to an Arranged Marriage she is not happy with the idea and tries to get out of it. On the flip side, Philip wasn t about to accept his end of the bargain either.

Kingdom Hearts adds emphasis to Belle who elbowed Xaldin, took the rose from him and laughed as she ran Ariel the Chemist of Kingdom Hearts. Everyone else got the short end of the stick though.

Jasmine in Aladdin, even more so in the stage adaptation.

Mei, Ting-Ting, and Su from Mulan II. At the end of the film, rather than marrying the princes that live on the other side of China, they all instead hook up with Yao, Ling, and Chien-Po, respectively.

Merida from Brave plays this trope very, very straight. The film itself really only starts this way, and it s really only the mother who Merida is up against when not getting involved with exciting drinking parties, her father is perfectly okay with much of it and even gave her her first bow for her birthday. In the end, it s not so much about her getting her way as it is her and her mother getting an understanding of each other s opinions and finding a balance.

    Films Live-Action 

In The Princess and the Pirate, the princess is fleeing from an Arranged Marriage, until she is kidnapped by the pirate. Luckily Bob Hope is there to save her.

Gender-flipped in Ever After: Prince Henry does not want to have an Arranged Marriage and take on the duties of his kingdom. See Rebel Prince.

Princess Ann in Roman Holiday, who runs away for a day in the city of Rome due to the pressure put upon her.

Princess Vespa from Spaceballs becomes a Runaway Bride rather than be wed to the drippy Prince Valium, and proves herself to be very spoiled and headstrong in her interactions with Lone Starr.

Star Wars has a subversion: Princess Leia may be a rebel, but so is her father Bail. Despite this, she and her twin brother are still rebelling against their biological father.

The Princess Leia Diaries has her rebelling against social norms as well.

Jodhaa in Jodhaa Akbar definitely fits the bill. She s a beautiful Rajput princess who s not only an Action Girl who can hold her own in a sword fight against the Mughal emperor of Hindustan, but she also refuses to marry him and after she marries him, show him outward affection until he shows her and the rest of India religious tolerance.

Princess Yuki in Akira Kurosawa s The Hidden Fortress which is the basis for the original Star Wars. She s a tomboy who always argues against and contradicts the loyal general Toshiro Mifune protecting her as they travel through enemy territory in disguise.

MirrorMask features an evil one who is willing to destroy the world she s from in order to keep from going back there.

In Legend, it s implied that Lily frequently sneaks off into the woods to visit friends, one of whom even comments that she should be back at the palace and not hanging out with poor folks like them.

Jen from Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, though she isn t a princess, but a governor s daughter. She longed for an exciting life of adventure and didn t want to get married.

Elizabeth from Pirates of the Caribbean is a governor s daughter instead of a princess, but shows the usual rebellious princess traits.

    Literature 

Princess Halley in A Brother s Price ran away from her duties in order to find out who murdered a big part of her family. While the princesses are expected to do things, her family is displeased because she doesn t write letters, and they don t even know whether she s still alive.

Mia in The Princess Diaries is extremely displeased to find out that she s a princess, largely because of all the stereotypes associated with the position. It should be noted that her parents specifically limit the amount of money she s allowed, and her new title requires her to spend years being trained in courtesy and diplomacy by her overbearing grandmother, who she legitimately hates. She grows into the position eventually, but most of the series devotes itself to answering; What would a shy, anxious teenager with all the responsibilities of royalty and very few of the automatic privileges be like. Answer: Not very happy.

Jelka Tolonen in David Wingrove s Chung Kuo series borders on this, due to an Arranged Marriage

Princess Eilonwy from the Chronicles of Prydain, whose outspokenness and rebelliousness at times border on childish brattishness.

Since Disney created The Film of the Book with The Black Cauldron, Eilonwy is would also be part of the previously listed Disney line-up; however, her characterization is a bit different in the film.

As we see in The Book of Three that when her kinfolk, the Sea People, went to war, the women rode out with the men. In The High King, the ladies of the Court of Mona who were trying to teach her how to act ladylike were the weird ones.

Although the title princess is not used in the world of Patricia A Mckillip s The Riddle Master Trilogy, the heroine Raederle, daughter of the land-ruler of An, certainly fits the description of a rebellious one. As do Lyra and Tristan, her traveling companions in the second volume, Heir of Sea and Fire.

Ista from Lois McMaster Bujold s Paladin of Souls would fit this almost perfectly were it not for the detail of being a forty year old widow and mother of the young queen. She started out guilting her keepers cough attendants into permitting her an incognito vacation ahem pilgrimage, and by the end.

dy Hueltar: having caught up with Ista after the breaking of a sorcerous siege Now that you are calmer, Lady Ista, surely it is time we began to think of going safely to Valenda.

Ista: I m not going back to Valenda. I m going to follow the army into Jokona to hunt demons for the Bastard. Safety has little to do with the god s chores.

Her other series, the Vorkosigan Saga, has Emperor Gregor, who s almost a male version of this in The Vor Game, partly because he s suicidal and afraid of going insane and being a horrible ruler. He gets over it.

Ce Nedra from David and Leigh Eddings s Belgariad series certainly has the attitude and the love interest bit down, though she actually loves being a princess one of her major problems with marrying Garion was the fact that, as Overlord of the West, he outranked her.

However, she did run away from home with only her personal tutor, because a treaty required that she present herself in her wedding gown at the throne of the Rivan King to be betrothed to him on her sixteenth birthday. She thought it was completely pointless and humiliating, because there hadn t been a Rivan King in hundreds of years. She is, of course, found by the group that includes Garion who is the heir to the Rivan throne.

Princess Andromeda Andie in the second book of Mercedes Lackey s Tales of the Five Hundred Kingdoms novels. Subverted slightly in that Andie is led to rebellion by her intelligence and virtue, as the Queen and her Chief Advisor have nothing but bad intentions. This is a world where tropes have a force stronger than law itself. The Queen and her advisor couldn t have been good, and the book says so.

Princess Cimorene from the Enchanted Forest Chronicles - early in the first book, she intentionally gets herself kidnapped by a dragon in order to escape her current life and an Arranged Marriage. Before this she insisted on her teachers teaching her things not normally covered: magic, cooking, politics, fencing, Latin, etc. She also fights off many of the princes and knights to come to rescue her herself to prevent them from bringing her home, and changes her official title among the dragons to Chief Cook and Librarian to help drive them away.

Princess Meg from The Runaway Princess, a typical hates doing princessy things like embroidery princess, starts off the book by questioning the stereotypical princess story her mother reads to her before bed, and later defies her father and attempts to interfere with the contest he set up to marry her off and help stimulate the kingdom s economy. She ends up winning the contest herself, accidentally.

Princess Amy from The Ordinary Princess bolts from her home after her parents and their councilors come up with a plot to hire a dragon and imprison her in a tower in order to force some prince into marrying her. Amy s deception of being an ordinary person is helped by the fact that, as a baby, a fairy actually blessed her to be ordinary she doesn t look or act like a stereotypical princess at all.

Annice of Sing the Four Quarters by Tanya Huff. Her even being a bard is the direct cause of her having been legally stripped of royal status mostly because her brother had a snit fit when she refused the Arranged Marriage he d set up in favour of attending the Bardic College - the prince he was setting her up to marry came from a queendom that was rabidly phobic of bards. The Fridge Logic inherent in his attempt is pointed out near the end of the book, when the Bardic leader pretty much hits the king over the head with the fact that the bard-hating queendom wouldn t even have considered Annice as an eligible candidate once word of her ability to Sing the kigh got out. She and her brother don t talk much, even after he fixes his mistake and apologizes.

Anne Dare of Greg Keyes s Kingdoms of Thorn and Bone tetralogy though she is thwarted in her rebelliousness first by family members who are actually smart enough to predict her defiance and catch her at it, then by some well-deserved guilt-tripping from her friend and maidservant, and finally by, well, reality, in the form of a legion of disasters, tragedies and prophesied battles.

Aravis of The Horse and His Boy princess of the Calormene province of Calavar who prefers hunting and riding and scimitar-fighting to what princesses like her best friend Lasaraleen are expected to do. Even leaves her home rather than being forced to marry the Smug Snake of the Tisroc s Prime Minister. Ends up marrying Shasta aka Prince Cor and becoming the Queen of Archenland.

Arya Stark from George RR Martin s A Song of Ice and Fire is a deconstruction of this. In order to survive in Westeros, she has to become an Anti-Hero.

Nerilka of Pern isn t a princess, but she s the closest Pernese equivalent. She refuses to sit at home and waste her skills during a devastating plague, quietly leaving to work incognito with the healers instead.

Both of the Twice Royal Balitang girls in Tamora Pierce s Daughterofthe Lioness books. Sarai takes the traditional rebellious teenager route, while Dove becomes an actual rebel.

Susan Sto Helit of the Discworld books is a reigning duchess rather than a princess but otherwise fits the bill in that she displays no interest whatsoever in using her title or position and ends up taking a job as a lowly schoolmistress. Though it must be said she has very few of the traditional personality traits associated with this trope.

J. R. R. Tolkien s Middle-earth:

Although Éowyn of The Lord of the Rings does not carry the title of princess, her uncle is the king and her brother Éomer is his heir after their cousin Théodred died in the war ; she also marries Faramir, Prince of Ithilien, a province of Gondor. Her uncle had given her the responsibility of leading the people to the safety of Dunharrow in the mountains. When she was later despairing about things, she secretly rode into battle with the rest of the army disguised as a man, where she killed the Witch-king with Merry s help.

Lúthien in The Silmarillion: Her father King Thingol sends her beloved Beren on an impossible suicide quest to get rid of him, and imprisons her in a treehouse to keep her from following. Lúthien escapes, rescues Beren from the dungeon he s ended up in, and helps him fulfill the quest so they can get married.

Princess Miriamele from the Memory, Sorrow and Thorn series disguises herself as a boy and flees her father s castle to avoid an Arranged Marriage, and also because she hates what he s doing with the kingdom. True to the trope, she ends up being the Love Interest for Simon and kicks no little ass herself. What makes her interesting is that her ultimate motivation is to return home to redeem her father, which fails to stop the Evil Plan but does set her up to kill her father when it s the only way to defeat the Storm King afterwards.

Princess Briony from the Shadowmarch series also sort of qualifies. Her father is in captivity and after her older brother Kendrik dies she is forced to pick up the crown. She is not so much averse and seems to enjoy it in principle - if only she were a boy and not subject to the expectations of the courtiers. She does not run away at first at least, but shocks everyone in the castle by wearing her twin brother s clothes most of the time. She does not want to stop being a royal altogether but would like to be treated like her brothers.

Aeriel in The Dreamland Chronicles is a minor aversion. She is an Amazon Princess so her adventuring doesn t really make her a rebel. What makes her a rebel to her people is that she falls in love with a man and is willing to do things for him that her tribe considers dishonorable.

Princess Laurana from the Dragonlance series. Blond, brash, and a teenager by Elven standards anyway. She runs away from home to try and win back The Hero even though he has just rejected her and her family disapproves of him for being a bastard half-human. She then becomes a Lady of War, even though elven women are not suppose to take up arms. After being reunited with her family, she immediately runs away again, this time to steal a Dragon Orb, from her father and deliver it to the Whitestone Council to help them fight the evil Dragonarmies. She wins the admiration of the highly chauvinistic Knights of Solamnia for her courage and skill in battle and is given command of their army, which she leads to a series of victories through highly innovative and risky tactics. And then, ignoring the advice of Team Dad, Flint Fireforge, she abandons her army to try and rescue her Love Interest, Tanis, only to be betrayed and captured by her Arch-Enemy, Kitiara.

A rare male version is present in Meghan Whalen Turner s Thief books. It s Gen, the titular Thief, although the also male Sophos may count as well to a degree.

Jame, the heroine of PC Hodgell s Chronicles of the Kencyrath, is not happy at all when she finds she s a Highborn lady of the highest rank and the sister of the Highlord. The rigid gender roles and restrictions chafe and she ultimately rejects them.

Leeana Bowmaster from David Weber s War God series is the daughter of a Baron rather than a King, but otherwise fits this trope to a T. Doesn t want to dress or act like a traditional noblewomen, is looking to escape an Arranged Marriage and eventually runs off to join the War Maidens.

Unusually, while her parents are sad to see her go mostly because by doing so she is no longer legally their daughter they also acknowledge that she will be much happier with the War Maids and quietly support her choice.

Lady Jessica Atreides in Dune is an interesting twist. She has Undying Loyalty to the Atreides family. She is rebelling against the Bene Gesserit order by having a son instead of a daughter yes she can control that she s a Bene Gesserit. She s also the daughter of the Baron Harkonnen. As in head of House Harkonnen, the Atreides mortal enemies, via a Bene Gesserit breeding scheme. She doesn t know it at first, and she s not pleased when she finds out.

Subverted by Princess Sarene of Elantris. She s very much got the personality, but since she s not the heir she s got a brother ahead of her in the line of succession and her father finds having a strong-willed diplomat who can handle herself in a swordfight if she has to and is more than capable of planning on the fly to be a far greater asset to the nation than a pampered princess would be, nobody minds.

The titular princess from the children s story King Dicky Bird and the Bossy Princess, who is quite happy being unmarried and running her father s kingdom by force of will, and is deliberately rude to all her suitors to put them off - including the sincere, persistent but unhandsome King Richard. Her father consequently declares that he ll marry her to the first beggar who offers to take her. One soon does. She makes the best of things in some fairly unprincessy ways she supports herself and her husband by making and selling items made of upcycled rubbish and eventually finds out that the beggar is King Richard in disguise, having discovered that he s an enlightened ruler with whom she could have a good marriage. So she rebels only to end up where she would have been had she not rebelled.

Jenna in Septimus Heap starts off as this, but she becomes more accepting of her role as the series progresses.

In E. D. Baker s The Wide-Awake Princess, Annie is Anti-Magic and has none of the Fairy Godmother gifts that make Gwendolyn so skilled. She deliberately learns nothing Gwendolyn does the same way she learns dancing from gypsies or not at all, and deliberately learns things that Gwendolyn doesn t, such as riding sidesaddle and reading and writing.

In Victoria Hanley s The Seer and the Sword, Torina in the opening wants to ride out instead of staying in, and when her father arrives and presents her with the enslaved prince of the conquered country, she declares if she can really do anything with him, she s freeing him.

The Apprentice Rogue: Downplayed. While Leona is willing to go along with her arranged marriage she is not completely docile. She rebels by seducing her bodyguard and having sex with him on the night before her wedding to her bodyguard s boss.

Deconstructed in A Memory Of Flames. Jaslyn is a princess who loves dragons more than people and loathes the thought of being Queen, which she eventually becomes. However, her desire for rebellion leads her to single-handedly do more harm to the realms than anyone save Kemir; she raises and awakens Silence, one of the most bloodthirsty and cruel dragons of all. The trope comes full-circle when she is eventually driven virtually to madness by the potions designed to protect her from Hatchling Disease and submits to her new role.

In Robert A. Heinlein s The Star Beast Lummox is young, and doesn t care about her important duties to her subjects. Having one sole hobby, she intends to raise humans, and will only return to her commitments if she gets to continue this activity indefinitely. Somewhat unusual in that she is a multi-ton, eight legged space lizard.

In the backstory of The Price of the Stars Perada Rosselin, Domina of Lost Entibor, Entibor-in-Exile, and the Colonies Beyond; took pains to give her only daughter and rightful heir Beka the sort of life that the war which eventually destroyed her homeworld robbed her of one which many who knew her suspected that she would not have liked that much herself. Beka responded by getting a Commercial Starpilot s Licence on her seventeenth birthdaynote  she said she went in for the Pleasure Craft, Limited sims and pressed the wrong button and talking her brother into convincing a safe berth to hire her on that night.

Luxa from The Underland Chronicles is technically a queen, still she owns this trope completely, but makes it seem pretty cool.

In Why Polly., the princess will sneak off to the ball, despite being forbidden to by her father.

Lissa Dragomir from Vampire Academy. She is dating a bad boy in Christian Ozera. She is mostly obedient to Queen Tatiana Ivashkov, but rebelling against her mentor s expectations when it comes to her dating life.

    Live Action TV 

The Baywatch episode Princess of Tides revolves around a princess, from a fictional European country, escaping her bodyguards to get away from her pampered life.

In The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air episode Nice Lady, Will is responsible for taking a young British aristocrat, Lady Penelope, to an opera; she instead ends up instead running off and partying around Los Angeles. Not technically a princess, though Geoffrey does mention that she s in succession for the throne, albeit too far down the line to mean much.

Lorelai Gilmore of Gilmore Girls became pregnant with Rory at sixteen but chose not to marry the father, Christopher Hayden. Instead, she left her privileged world and moved to Stars Hollow where she became employed at the Independence Inn. There Lorelai progressed from maid to executive manager.

Downton Abbey: Sybil is a Rebellious Aristocrat, as she s more interested in politics, women s rights and nursing than the wearing fancy clothes and going to parties. She eventually falls in love with the family chauffuer Tom, a similarly rebellious Irish Socialist, and they go to Ireland where they can be together and get married freely.

    Mythology 

In Norse Mythology we have Brynhildr, who was a valkyrie and a princess. She defied Odin and let the wrong army win a battle so Odin stipped her of her powers and turned her into a Sleeping Beauty-esque Princess Classic - as a punishment.

    Tabletop Games 

In the Forgotten Realms setting, Alusair, a princess of Cormyr, decided that everything may go far and fast but she would devote to her adventures in different senses all the time she could spare. Frequently to the point of prolonged inaccessibility via all but emergency communication means. Some people were displeased, but few dared to confront her and she was only the second daughter, not the crown princess, anyway. That is, until she was forced to become Steel Regent. Earned the nickname The Steel Princess not just because Authority Equals Asskicking though access to high-end equipment and elite troops doesn t hurt but via constant training and enough experience to write The Steel Princess Field Guide to Tactics of the Purple Dragon. And when talking with her sister about how few less-than-elite commanders read this book

Tanalasta: Perhaps because your style was stiff. I ll be happy to help you liven it up in a revision.

Alusair: There isn t going to be a revision there s going to be an order.

Liriel Baenre earned this summary from the city s Archmage before she did anything really wild :

Gromph: Please, save that look of wide-eyed innocence to beguile the house guards. I know only too well the mercenary captain who boasts that he taught a princess to throw knives as well as any tavern cutthroat alive. Though how you managed to slip past the guard-spiders that Matron Hinkutes nat posts at every turn, and find your way through the city to that particular tavern, is beyond my imagination.

    Video Games 

Nina, in the first and third Breath of Fire games, starts off as one of these but eventually ends up as a Royal Who Actually Does Something who keeps her strength while also gaining a sense of responsibility.

Extremely common in Final Fantasy games:

In Final Fantasy IV, the player encounters Edward/Gilbert, a rebellious prince who masquerades as a Spoony Bard.

Faris in Final Fantasy V - having disguised herself as a man and become the captain of a gang of pirates, distinctly more so than the former. To her defense, she had been adopted by the pirates captain after a tragic Hiryuu accident.

Another rebellious prince, Sabin, appears in Final Fantasy VI, having given up the throne for his own freedom to train as a monk, after winning a coin toss between him and his brother Edgar to decide his own fate. It s later revealed that Edgar rigged the coin toss in his brother s favor shouldering the burden neither brother really wanted to bear.

And defeat trains as a monk, am I right.

Yuffie of Final Fantasy VII is the daughter of Lord Godo, thus making her the princess of Wutai. In Crisis Core she even gives herself the title Treasure Princess. If you follow her sidequest you find out that she does not get along with her father, who she considers a coward for not fighting Shinra. Though they do manage to patch things up if you have her go through all five levels of the pagoda Yuffie never does act like you d expect from a princess.

Rinoa of Final Fantasy VIII is not quite a princess, but fits the trope nicely she s the leader of a terrorist group seeking to overthrow the Galbadian government, of which her father is the Minister of Defense. And her party nickname IS princess.

Garnet from Final Fantasy IX is a borderline member she has a much calmer, shyer personality than most, but she s still a Rebellious Princess.

Ashe from Final Fantasy XII is the rebellious princess in the way that she is leading a rebellion against the Archadian Empire that took over Dalmasca and she wants it back to the way it was, initially willing to go through any means.

Marle from Chrono Trigger also exemplifies this trope, even going so far as to use a pseudonym her real name is Nadia.

Kitana from Mortal Kombat. She is part of the royal family of the Outworld and as such, works for Shao Khan originally, but turns against him and helps the warriors of the Earthrealm.

Mileena pulls this off as well, but for a somewhat different reason. It doesn t go so well for her.

Princess Seraphine from Puzzle Quest: Challenge of the Warlords. The player character is supposed to escort her to the court of the man to whom she s betrothed, but she begs for help in escaping. If the player elects not to force her into her arranged marriage, she joins the party and aids with future battles.

Princess Alena from the second chapter of Dragon Quest IV. In fact, within the realm of video games, she s probably the ur-example and definitely the ur-example for the Dragon Quest series.

Lady from the Japanese-only game Lady Stalker is a rich girl instead of a princess, but is otherwise not only a perfect example, but is so much like Alena that she s one of the pieces of evidence used to back up the rumor that the game was originally intended as a Dragon Quest Gaiden Game focused on Alena.

Nalia from Baldur s Gate 2 follows this trope to the letter, except that she s nobility rather than royalty. She also spouts somewhat condescending quasi-liberalisms about helping the less fortunate, but in a world where even the most egalitarian governments tend to be oligarchic and the economy is a sort of capitalism, she s fighting a losing battle. She s also shown as being somewhat of a self-righteous poser. Nalia s character is somewhat vindicated about halfway through the D Arnise hold quest, where the player character meets her aunt- a woman who is outraged that some of her servants left their posts at the castle after trolls attacked and conquered it. When the player considers that this attitude is in line with what many other noble NPCs believe, suddenly Nalia s hopeful idealism doesn t sound so bad.

Parodied in Kingdom of Loathing, in which one of the randomly encountered enemies in the Penultimate Fantasy Airship zone is the Spunky Princess.

Princess Peach in her own game, Super Princess Peach and Super Mario RPG. In pretty much any other game, she s a Distressed Damsel, though.

Jade Empire has Silk Fox, who enjoys escaping the pressures of palace life by donning a disguise that looks like a cross between a ninja suit and a harem girl outfit. Mainly, she just wants to take down the Evil Chancellor to her father. Interestingly enough, her character model is the only one that changes throughout the entire game: She removes her veil in the Imperial Palace and after the Point of No Return.

Super Robot Wars has not one, but three:

Princess Shine from the Super Robot Wars Original Generation series, who starts piloting a Humongous Mecha to liberate her kingdom and eventually ups and joins the heroes outright

Princess Armana Tiqvah from the Super Robot Wars Alpha series actually, Alpha 3, who bucks the trend by being a princess of The Empire instead.

One of the protagonist of Super Robot Wars 64, Manami Hamill, actually fits this despite not being a Princess, but an Ojou. She s a daughter of a high ranking family that actually supports the resistance force in attempt to liberate the Earth.

Princess Tiltyu of Freege in Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War though her dad is a duke instead of a king. Pretty much she s the only noblewoman in the first generation who ran away from home because she disagreed with their methods Princess Ayra of Isaac did run off from home, but she still adheres her Kingdom s ethics and it was per her brother thr King s request, since she had to keep Prince Shanan safe.

In Sword of Seals, there s Princess Guinevere of Bern who s on the run for openly questioning her older brother, King Zephiel. She s finally crowned as Queen when Zephiel dies at the hands of Roy, but still has lots of nobles hissing at her.

Fire Emblem is somewhat unusual when it comes to this trope in that rebellious princes outnumber their female counterparts. Probably the most famous of these is Hector of Ostia from the seventh game; he s technically a minor noble compared to others until he becomes the leader of Ostia by the end of Blazing Sword, and later of the whole Lycia alongside Eliwood, but otherwise hits every note of this trope.

Angela of Seiken Densetsu 3. While her motive might not quite fit the trope she runs away from home because she doesn t want to become sacrificed, her personality and actions are certainly a match.

In that game s predecessor, Secret of Mana, Purim runs off with the hero in search of her love interest, Dyluck. However, she s not actually a princess, but rather the daughter of a noble.

Atelier Annie, along with the still-Japan-only Atelier Liese features this in Liese Randel herself. It s a little different in that she actually loves her parents and they love her however, her father is a financial idiot and has managed to get the entire kingdom into a multimillion-gold debt to a foreign bank, and if the kingdom can t pay it off, the bank will foreclose on the rights to rule the kingdom - by any means necessary. Thus Liese disguises herself and leaves home to make a fortune in a neighboring kingdom, setting Atelier Liese s action and plot into motion. She fits the other parts of the trope to a T, being a bit brash and overbearing and she did technically dodge an arranged marriage by doing this - an arrangement to the Prince of the kingdom she s now in. Ooops.

This pops up again when Liese appears in Atelier Annie; she s evidently given her parents, who she did manage to bail out in the last game, the flip and run off to Sera Island to participate in the development contest, ostensibly for the prize money. That may not be her only motivation for coming, though

Is it still rebellious if Daddy was the same way. Flare of Suikoden IV is strong willed and, if not brash, at least unflinchingly true to her core principles. Then again, King Lino en Kuldes spends most of his days in sandals and a sleeveless t-shirt. C mon. You know you want this royal family.

Flare runs away from home in Tactics to help Kyril and his crew defeat Iskas and his crowd. Semi-subverted because she sees it as duty to her country and her father ends up catching up with them. Also semi-subverted because she had her hypochondriac doctor guard with her throughout unless you let him die, then he s dead forever.

Princess Lymsleia from Suikoden V qualifies, although her being rebellious is aimed towards the Godwins scheming and is trying to be as much of a hindrance to them as possible until the prince can stop them.

Suikoden V also has Yuma Vayla, better known by her alias Josephine, the younger sister of one of the New Armes Kingdom s most powerful nobles. She s rebellious purely out of boredom and of finding her own nation lacking in culture. So she runs off to Falena, her nation s arch-rival, hoping to find people who meet her decidedly odd definition of cultured.

The first Suikoden also has Odessa Silverberg being a Rebellious Princess, you probably won t notice unless you read the novels. She starts out as The White Princess, but fell in love with a rebel leader, and starts seeing the error of The Empire. When her lover is about to get executed, she broke through the execution in attempt to rescue her lover, with a sword and wearing a wedding dress. Her lover still died, but at least she got him out of being executed by the enemy and he still gets to transfer his ideals to her, leading her to become the leader of The Liberation Army.

Suikoden III has Lilly Pendragon, the Spoiled Brat daughter of the leader of the Tinto Republic. A super-bossy Heroic Wannabe, she finds an excuse to head into the Grasslands just before things start going to hell and insists on staying there until she can complete her self-assigned mission. In the end, she has to leave when their funds run out only to lead Tinto s army back in to officially align with the Fire Bringer and join the war.

Milly in Baten Kaitos Origins is an aristocrat s daughter who got fed up with the lifestyle, ran away, and latched on to Sagi. She s actually not rebellious at all - her father, Baelheit, sent her after Sagi to spy on him. It does get played straighter later, when she stops giving Baelheit useful information.

Elise from My World, My Way is a spoiled brat of a princess who goes out to become an adventurer after an adventurer rejects her.

Kara from Illusion of Gaia, though she does continue to act like a spoiled princess for some time.

Tahlkora from Guild Wars. The fact that she is a princess is kept secret from the player until halfway through the game, when you find her chatting away to her father, the Prince you ve just spent several missions trying to get to.

Princess Zelda can fit this trope, depending on the incarnation in question. In some games, she s stated to frequently sneak out of her castle The Legend of Zelda: The Minish Cap, for instance, and when her kingdom falls in The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, she becomes a Ninja instead of hiding out the old fashioned way. In The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker, she s known as Tetra, the very un-princessy captain of a pirate crew who dresses like a boy and kicks considerable butt. Tetra is something of an aversion, since for most of the game she was completely unaware of her own identity.

Princess Zelda in The Legend of Zelda: Spirit Tracks would count, especially at the beginning of the game, when she has Link sneak her out of the castle so she can investigate strange goings on.

Midna is forced to become one in The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess when Zant takes over her kingdom. She has the brash, stuborn personality down perfectly, though.

While not actually royal, Soon-to-be-Queen Isabel in Heroes of Might and Magic V definitely has these traits early on. The demons are all too aware of it and use it against her.

Princess Sapphire of Disgaea 3 believes that the best way to defend her kingdom is to assassinate enemies before they get around to starting a war. The player never meets her parents or advisors, but they ve probably told her to stop if they aren t terrified of her for good reason.

From Arc The Lad, Sania of Milmana and Kukuru of Seyra, princesses and wanted terrorists: Sania is not adverse to the idea of blowing up her own capital if this means killing her enemies.

Wild ARMs 1 gets Cecilia the princess of Adlehyde. Her rebellion against her father unfortunately puts the Plot Coupon in the hands of the demons and inadvertently kills her father She rebels because she feels isolated due to her status but eventually realizes that it s her on coldness that keeps people at a distance

Jak and Daxter: While only a princess by virtue of being the Evil Overlord s daughter, Ashelin is so rebellious that she helps the movement that s trying to knock her father out of power.

Elsa is only the daughter of a Baron in Quest for Glory. After being rescued and despelled in QFG1, she departs for the locale of QFG5 to become an Action Girl. According to the backstory, she resented the Baron s restrictions on her fighting lifestyle, and fled them.

Selphy in Rune Factory Frontier is heavily implied to have run away from her position as princess of some unnamed country. She then fulfills her dream in Trampoli, not of being an Action Girl or anything of the sort, but of being a shut-in running the library.

Princess Sadira of Vanguard Bandits personally heads out into combat to route out all the corruption in The Empire. Against the wishes of nearly everyone in power who is corrupt and even her own father.

Uriel Chuluun in Rift is the daughter of a former tribal chieftain. She d rather spend her time studying necromancy, bitching about the way Daddy is holding everyone back, and swooning over a certain elven assassin. Not to mention almost getting herself killed by messing around with the Endless Court.

Princess Eruca of Radiant Historia takes this to the logical extreme by actually leading the rebellion against her stepmother.

    Web Comics 

Princess Voluptua in The Inexplicable Adventures of Bob. has issues with her father the Emperoror, not the least of them being that he tried to marry her off to a walking jellyfish.

Although Princess Saffron Lachesis respects her father, she doesn t really cut most people s expectations of a modest princess. The fact that she wields a cane sword and beats up criminals doesn t help.

Aylia is a duchess and is legally required to obey her parents. However, as her mother has proven her incompetence to her by sending her off to college, so whilst away from the castle she continued to practice the wizardry that her mother thought was not for ladies.

Jillian Zamussels in Erfworld did not get along with her father King Banhammer, and preferred to spend as much time as possible away from home on mercenary missions. After her kingdom fell while she was away, she had no interest in returning home to re-establish it until politics and circumstances forced her in that direction.

Fauna in Curvy is a princess well, her royal title is despoina and love interest on the run from an Arranged Marriage.

Feferi of Homestuck is next in line to be the Empress of all Trolls, but she despises the hemospectrum caste system their society has and aspires to change it into a more unified and caring system that protects weaker members of the race instead of culling them.

Subverted in that, whilst she despises the caste system, she doesn t shy away from becoming the Empress in order to exact her changes.

There s also Feferi s ancestor/descendant Meenah, who ran away to the moon to avoid becoming empress, which was a position she saw as a glorified slave. Unlike most examples, she s far from heroic. Ironically, after the Scratch she wound up in servitude to Lord English, and actually became a glorified slave.

Ame and Suko from Heartcore are examples of this, considering how they fought against their father Royce A demon king and other high ranking demons in order to escape their royal home.

Tanna of Ears for Elves fits this trope, though her culture doesn t have royalty. Zalanna despairs at her, but Luero comments on how Tanna likes that role.

In Magience, Crystal is not pleased to be playing a princess, so she runs away.

Pheia from Holystone ran away and became a pirate in order to escape becoming something akin to both pope and queen of the world an idea she found oppressive, no thanks to her mother s abusive levels of pressure and ambition.

Yuri Zahard from Tower of God, a Tomboy Princess, known ruffneck, rule-breaking maverick of a warrior who openly sides with an N.G.O. Superpower that has as much influence as the royalty she belongs to. She does the rule-breaking very subtle and fulfills her assigned, though, so barely anyone notices or complains. Except for Evan, her guide.

Prince Ossian in Sword Princess Amaltea is a gender flipped version, thanks to the story being held in a Matriarchy. He s concious that he s destined as either a Meal Ticket or as another offer in a future alliance, so in rebellion he cut his long hair, uses pants and speaks his mind, especially towards heroine Amaltea.

Jade Marigold in The Story Of Anima would rather be hanging out with the mercenaries hired to keep her safe then give speeches. Its no surprise she s so to get to go on a real adventure.

    Western Animation 

Animaniacs sent up the above example in their Pocahontas parody with the song Just the Same Old Heroine. First I tuned an aerial / Then I rang a bell

Played with in Gummi Bears. Princess Calla, a Cute Bruiser in training who loves to go adventuring, has her father discover her secret participation in a contest for the winner to become an official protector for herself. However, far from disapproving, he is deeply impressed with her physical prowess and says publicly that it s clear she needs no personal protector after all.

The Legend of Korra takes place in a time when royalty has more or less been phased out, but Asami Sato still fits this trope s spirit very well. She s the aristocratic, wealthy daughter of the guy who invented automobiles, who has never wanted for anything but as we see later, when her hometown is being torn apart by revolution, her character is generous and deeply moral- willing to fight against her own family if that is what it takes to keep the fascistic rebels and equally fascistic city leaders from killing innocent people.

Korra, who in Book Two: Air was revealed as the niece of the Northern Water Tribe s leader and daughter of the original heir could count as well. After some doubts she rejects her uncle s takeover the Southern Tribe, and she sides against him in the civil war that follows.

In the Strawberry Shortcake episode A Princess Named Rap, a retelling of Rapunzel, the titular princess wants to be a good ruler, but has a hard time keeping her individualistic tendencies at bay. At one point, she even sings a preteen anthem with the line Why can t the things I love be part of royalty.

Princess Maya from Adventures of the Galaxy Rangers crosses this and Badass Princess. We first see her in Gladiator Games arranged by a two of the more sociopathic members of the Rogues Gallery, having been captured from her home world. After she and the Rangers break free, she goes back and insists on bringing modern technology to her Space Amish people in order to protect them from interstellar threats, even if she has to openly revolt against her own father to do it.

Princess Audrey of Kasnia in Justice League. More of a party girl ala Paris Hilton, but doomed to an arranged marriage. She strikes up a friendship with Wonder Woman to have a night on the town to go shopping and clubbing. Subverted, however, when her father is poisoned and goes into a coma: she immediately becomes serious about her royal duties and has the wedding take place immediately so that the Kasnian people will have assurance of the royal family s continuity. Too bad her husband-to-be was really the villain Vandal Savage and it was all a part of his plan to gain power.

In My Little Pony G3, Rarity was a young filly who just wanted to have fun and had no desire to be a rainbow princess. In her case, choosing fun over duty is a Bad Thing and she must learn otherwise.

Also in G3, the fact that being a princess isn t as much fun as little girls think was pretty much the whole point of The Princess Promenade. Wysteria, a gardener who basically becomes a princess by finding a certain flower, she is at first willing to take up the mantle and everyone is supportive of her. However, in being trained to be refined and never get her own hooves dirty with manual work and to remember that her friends were now her subjects and she couldn t spend time with them as if nothing had changed, the whole idea quickly soured. She finally finds a loophole: she makes everyone a princess.

    Real Life 

Saint Elisabeth of Hungary, either as a princess she spent her time in direct charity rather than just making donations, which the other nobles didn t approve of and even her husband Ludwig was skeptical of, fearing her proteges would abuse her kindness or as a widow she left the Warburg court willingly after her husband s death so she wouldn t have to bow to her brother-in-law s regency, wanted to be a nun rather than re-marrying, went through Training from Hell to enter the Dominic Tertiaries and even threatened to disfigure herself so her power-hungry relatives wouldn t trap her in an Arranged Marriage

Another famous and very rebellious Elisabeth was Elisabeth of Bavaria, Empress Consort of Austria and Queen Consort of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, better known as Sisi. Her position as the Rebellious Empress and the eccentric Bunny-Ears Lawyer in the Austrian Imperial Court would bring her much misfortune, and her myth was the inspiration for the German musical Elisabeth and the Princess Sissi TV series - as well as for the Historical Hero Upgrade she went through there.

Princess Stéphanie of Monaco. Her mom, Princess Grace Kelly, nicknamed her Wild Child, and for good reason. And that s not even getting into her multiple love affairs, including her terrible relationship with Mario Oliver and her very tempestuous marriage to her bodyguard Daniel Ducruet.

Saint Philomena. According to her myth, she was a Greek princess who spurned the affections of The Emperor in this case, Diocletian because she wanted to keep her virginity vows and hated the idea of becoming a child bride just to sign the peace between Rome and her kingdom. It went From Bad to Worse, needless to say. note Since the whole myth is chock-full of historical inaccouracies i.e. Diocletian was a married man and not a widow as the myth says and his wife outlived him, marrying a non-Roman woman was out of the question for him, there were no Greek small kingdoms by the time Philomena s story was supposed to take place, etc., it s highly likely that it was a fake story inspired by the tombstone in Philomena s grave: there WAS a martyr girl named Philomena, yeah, but it s almost impossible for her to have been a Rebellious Princess who told Diocletian to go fuck himself.

St. Dypmha, who escaped to become a nun after her chieftain father nearly forced her into marriage to him. She and her protector ended up dead at the end of her maddened dad s sword.

Alvilda 1 2, Alfhild, Alwilda, Alvild, or ÆÆlfhild is a possibly real example. She decided to be a pirate because she didn t like the idea of getting married or being pampered.

Previous Index Next

Princess in Rags

Princess Tropes

Spoiled Brat

Rebel Relaxation

Rebel Tropes

Rebellious Rebel

Rebel Prince

Characters as Device

Reckless Sidekick

Flash Gordon

ImageSource/Comic Strips

For Better or for Worse

Proper Lady

Women Are Delicate

Save the Princess

Raven Hair, Ivory Skin

Administrivia/Pages Needing Example Context

Say My Name

Quickly Demoted Woman

Always Female

Reluctant Fanservice Girl

Real Women Don t Wear Dresses

Gender Dynamics Index

Spirited Young Lady

Love Interests

Reformed Rakes

Protagonist Without A Past

Videogame Characters

The Red Mage.

Princess Jasmine الأميرة ياسمين Background information Character information Princess Jasmine.

To the Rebellious Princess, being part of the royal family is overrated: You have no control over the path of your life, your responsibilities are numerous and.

Furk.net is not a file locker and doesn t support filesharing for profit.

Windows Media Player Tag 55

Manually Add a Folder Monitored By Windows Media Player ; Enable and Adjust Windows Media Player 11 Graphic Equalizer ; Burn an Audio Data Disc with Windows Media Player.

From Microsoft: Windows Media Player 11 for Windows XP offers great new ways to store and enjoy all your music, video, pictures, and recorded TV.

You probably saw many websites that include an embeded video player in their pages, such as the one in the images below. Most of the time, the embedded video player.

audio codec format tag 55 - Forums - CNET

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I was having problems with the library of my Windows Media Player 11 BETA. So I searched a way to rebuild/remove the cache of the library data that WMP uses.

From Microsoft: Windows Media Player allows you to play audio and video files locally stored and streamed from the Internet. It includes a visualizer, a jukebox, a.

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We are using WMV videos on an internal site, and we are embedding them into web sites. Now, this works quite well on Internet Explorer, but not on Firefox. I ve found.

General discussion

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September 14, 2004 PM PDT

If anyones out there listening can you please refer me to a web site where I can download format tag 55 for Windows Media Player for Window s XP

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Take a look through here; maybe you might find it here.

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windows media player tag 55

Apps for Windows Media Player Windows Media Player is also a platform with 5 apps listed on AlternativeTo. Browse all 5 apps for Windows Media Player.

This blog post is part of a series about how Windows Phone 8.1 affects developers. The series is written in collaboration with Microsoft evangelist Peter Bryntesson.

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Opengl Driver Update Download

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MODEL 1100 G3 Get Pricing 12 or 20 ga., 3 in. chamber, steel receiver with titanium PVD coating, all internal operating parts feature a nickel/Teflon coating.

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Overview

Description:

Remington s first pump-action six-shot repeating shotgun

 

Introduction Year:

1908

Year Discontinued:

1929

Total Production:

Approximately 275,600

Designer/Inventor:

John D. Pederson with improvements by C.C. Loomis and R. Barger

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2016 Primrose Schools. All rights reserved. Equal Opportunity Care Provider.

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HOW TO RECORD VIDEO IN VIRTUALDJ VERSION 7 PC

This tutorial explains how to configure VirtualDJ to record video using the codecs mostly used.

There is not only one video configuration possible because the variety of existing codecs and combinations that can be obtained are numerous. Even the hardware combinations are importants and it is not mathematically determined that a configuration on a system gives the same results on a new one. Only the final test of the configuration confirm the good or bad result.

The configuration explained in this guide has as objective:

a good video quality

stability and low CPU load

which does not introduce any out of sync between audio and video.

There are various solutions such as use Dvix codec, h264, xvid, mpeg and many others, but some of them there were issues of audio/video timing or a heavy commitment of the cpu that causing Skips video frames. The proposed solution are based on MPEG2 and MPEG4 codecs. This choice is dictated not only by the reasons just described, even by Experience in the Software development and the collection of information by the users. So at present these are the recommended configurations and also the most popular and reliable.

Follow this procedure:

1 Install ffdshow use the deafult settings and restart the system. It s suggested ffdshow because offer good performances with a low CPU consumption. You need to use 32-bit version, even on 64-bit windows.

to download the pack click here

2 Open the recording configuration page and set the audio bit rate:

Click on config and choose the il bit rate. It s recommended the value from 192 to 320 Kbs to obtain a good audio quality.

3 Now, let s go on with the video configuration:

Click on config and choose in the drop down menù ffdshow Video Codec, then click on configure

It s the time to setup the codec Mp4v:

if you prefer the MPG2:

The pictures show a settings which gives a good quality for both codecs. If you want to save space on the hd, you can choose other settings by adjusting the parameters of the codec in particular by decreasing the bitrate kbps.

This solution is not the most parsimonious in terms of space used in the hard disk but today should not be a big problem. Usually this configuration is very stable, do not overload the CPU and return a good quality audio and video.

Now we are ready to record our videos.

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Driver For Scanner Snapscan 1212u

New scanners are added on a regular basis. If you are looking for a scanner not on this list, consult the documentation to see if it comes bundled with a TWAIN driver.

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  • Official AGFA SnapScan 1212u ScanWise Free Driver Download for Windows XP, 2000, ME, 98SE, 98, 95 - 2.0.0.9-1212u.exe. World s most popular driver download site.
  • SnapScan 1212u and USB. How do I check to make sure my USB controller is working. To check if the Universal Serial Bus controller is present in the Device Manager.
  • Using a USB Scanner. As noted in the installation part, the scanner driver provides a link for a suitable user space program to access the scanner hardware.
  • Software, Documentation and Drivers for scanners and digital cameras. Agfa discontinued its consumer scanner product line SnapScan, DuoScan, Arcus, as well as its.

Missing SnapScan Manuals

The manuals are located on the AGFA Scanner CD-ROM, in Adobe Acrobat PDF-file format. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Reader software so that you can read the manuals or print them out. No hard-copy manuals are available.

Return to Top of Page

Cross - Platform SnapScan

Will my scanner work on both Mac and PC platforms.

Yes. The scanners are exactly the same for both types of computers. However, if you are going from a Mac platform to a PC-based computer, you will need to purchase a SCSI controller for your PC.

The SnapScan has also been tested and does work with the new Apple Mac G-series computers with USB support.

Bulb Replacement - SnapScan 310/EZ

How do I change the base lamp in my SnapScan 310 or SnapScan EZ.

Turn off and unplug the scanner.

Gently turn over the scanner and lay it on a soft surface.

At the front of the scanner, you will see three plastic tabs in the scanner cover that hold the base of the scanner in place.

Using two flathead screwdrivers, wedge them in the front of the scanner where the tabs are to allow the base of the scanner to clear tabs.

Once the tabs clear the base of the scanner, the top case of the scanner should come free of the base. There will be a cable that connects the base to the power switch in the top of the case. Make sure you unplug this cable when removing the case top.

Under each end of the black tray that holds the bulb in place you will find a tab. Release the tabs and the tray will rotate up.

At each end of the bulb there is a wire. These wires join together at a connector under the black bulb holder tray. Unplug this connector.

Unhook the wires from the bottom of the black bulb holder tray and remove the bulb from its clips on the tray.

Replace the bulb and route the wires in their retainer clips.

Plug the bulb connector back in to its slot on the circuit board on the bottom of the black bulb holder tray.

Replace the black bulb holder tray. Align the three tabs at the front of the tray and then rotate the tray down until the tabs at the ends of the tray under the bulb click in place.

Plug the power switch connector plug back in to the top cover.

Place top cover of the scanner back on the base.

Lamp Replacement - SnapScan/SnapScan 600

How do I change the base lamp for the SnapScan or SnapScan 600.

Remove cover from scanner.

In between the holes that the cover posts go in, you will see a circular hole. Press a screwdriver down in this hole and the glass bed top of the scanner should slide back.

Remove the four screws in the top of the scanner that are revealed when you remove the scanner top. The cover of the scanner will now come off.

Remove the cover on the bulb. It is a plastic piece that just pops off.

At one end of the bulb holder, there will be an opening that allows you to reach under and pry the bulb up.

The bulb is a standard Phillips 8-watt daylight fluorescent bulb. It should be available at most lighting stores.

When placing bulb back in its holder, make sure it is firmly seated at both ends. The bulb should sit flush with the bulb retainer ends.

Place the plastic cover over the bulb.

Replace the top of the scanner and reinstall four screws.

Place scanner glass bed top in slots in scanner cover top and slide toward the front of the scanner until it clicks in place.

Replace the cover by inserting its posts into their respective holes.

SnapScan 1212u and Windows 95

Will the SnapScan 1212u work on a Windows 95 system with USB support.

No, the SnapScan 1212u only runs on Windows 98 systems. Windows 95 lacks the still image device layer STI layer that our driver FotoLook needs to work with the scanner. There is no way to get this scanner working on Windows 95.

Negative and Transparency Scanning

How do I scan negatives or transparencies with my SnapScan.

Transparency and negative scanning require an optional transparency adapter TPO. Only the following SnapScan models can be equipped with this option:

SnapScan

SnapScan 300

SnapScan 600

SnapScan 1236S

Of these types, only the 600 and the 1236S can scan negatives if used with the AGFA FotoLook 3.0x PC driver Mac negative scanning is NOT supported on the SnapScan series.

Other SnapScan models can NOT be equipped with a transparency adapter and scan reflective originals only.

FotoLook will disable the negative and/or transparency options in its user interface according to your scanner model and installed peripherals TPO.

SnapScan 1212u and USB

How do I check to make sure my USB controller is working.

To check if the Universal Serial Bus controller is present in the Device Manager, click with the right mouse button on the icon My Computer and select Properties from the menu that pops up. Select the Device Manager tab from the System Properties dialog box.

If the Universal Serial Bus Controller is present in the Device Manager, carry out the scanner installation procedure exactly as described in the Getting Started Manual.

If the Universal Serial Bus Controller is not present in the Device Manager, carry out the following instructions:

Reboot your computer.

Enable the USB controller in the BIOS settings.

Exit and save the changes you made. Your computer is rebooted automatically.

CAUTION: Changing your computer s BIOS settings is at your own risk. It should be done by system administrators and experienced users only. If you are not familiar with this kind of task, ask your computer dealer to do this.

Check again if the Universal Serial Bus is present in the Device Manager. If the Universal Serial Bus controller is present in the Device Manager, carry out the scanner installation procedure exactly as described in the Getting Started manual.

If the Universal Serial Bus controller is still not present in the Device Manager, carry out the following instructions:

Click the Start Button.

Choose Settings.

Select Control Panel.

Double-click on the Add New Hardware icon.

Attentively follow the instructions that appear on your screen.

The universal serial bus controller should now be present in the Device Manager. Carry out the scanner installation procedure exactly as described in the Getting Started manual. If the scanner does not work, try to use the other USB port on your PC.

Omnipage Pro 7.0 and ADF

When you try to use Caere Corporation s Omnipage Pro 7.0 and the SnapScan ADF, you get the following error message:

Wrong SCSI connection

Solution :

Install Agfa SnapScan driver. The driver can be found on the floppy supplied with the ADF. Copy the driver in the Extension Folder of the System Folder.

1212u Installation on an iMAC

I can not install Fotolook on my iMAC using the installer. My system will give me errors or lock-up. What can I do to fix it.

First make sure you have all extensions off except the Foreign File Access and the Apple CD-ROM. Go into the English folder and click on the 1212U listing. Choose the Fotolook folder and then click on the Fotolook 2.09.7 installer. At this point the install wizard will walk you through the rest of the installation. Using the defaults will be fine in this case.

1212u Problems with Windows 98 Upgrade

If you tried to install the scanner on Windows OSR2 with the USB upgrade and you are now upgrading to Windows 98, you can run into some problems caused by your earlier attempts to install the scanner. The scanner seems properly installed but FotoLook is unable to find it. Use the following procedure to fix the problem.

It is not possible to install the 1212u on Windows 95. However, running the installation procedure on 95 will mess up the system registry and this can cause problems even after you upgrade to 98. You can fix this by selecting properties of the scanner in the device manager. Select the Driver tab and click on Update Driver. Insert the AGFA Scanner CD and follow the instructions on screen.

Verify that the Still Image Devices Monitor is running. This can be done easily by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Del to bring up the Close Program dialog box: you should see a task called Stimon. We ve seen cases where a Windows 98 upgrade doesn t start this process. When this happens, the scanner will be visible in the device manager and the control panel but FotoLook will fail to find the scanner.

If Stimon.exe is not running, use one of the following possibilities to start the Still Image Devices Monitor:

Make a shortcut to Windows System Stimon.exe in the startup group start menu

Start regedit and add the following string value to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE Software Microsoft Windows Currentversion Run registry key:

name : Still Image Devices Monitor

value: C: Windows System Stimon.exe

Note: This is assuming Windows 98 is installed in C: Windows. Adjust the paths above accordingly if this is not the case.

Connecting a SnapScan 310 to a PowerBook

How can I connect/terminate my SnapScan 310 scanner with an Apple PowerBook.

Due to a special SCSI connection in the PowerBook, a direct connection to the SnapScan 310 isn t provided by Agfa. To connect your scanner to the PowerBook, do either of these:

Connect a device between the PowerBook and the SnapScan 310 and terminate the last device in the chain using a 25-pin terminator.

OR

A direct connection can be achieved with a special SCSI-adapter, called a ZIP-to-PowerBook adapter, which is available at many stores that sell the Apple PowerBooks or SCSI adapters.

Visioneer Paperport

Where is the serial number for Visioneer Paperport.

You will find this serial number on the Software Collection II CD towards the bottom.

Cleaning SnapScan EZ/1212P/1212U

How do I clean the glass of the Snapscan EZ, 1212P, or the 1212U.

Follow these basic steps:

Shut the scanner off and unplug the cables from the back of the scanner.

Pull out and up on the bottom front of the scanner, the casing should come off. You will find the power wire will unplug itself from the upper casing. Make note of where it will plug back in.

Clean the glass with a mild detergent and lint-free rag. Note: Always spray the detergent on the rag and not directly on the scanner.

Remember to plug the wire for the power back into the power button.

ColorIt. Demo

Why am I only getting a demo copy of ColorIt..

There are two versions of ColorIt. on the Software Collection II CD. To install the full version of ColorIt., you will just need to open the English version of ColorIt. on the CD and then use the ColorIt. 3.09 installer.

Omnipage LE and ADF

There could be some problems occurring with OmniPage LE and the ADF. The following could be a solution for those who have problems.

Go to the software library section of Agfa s Website, and download the adfAgfadrivers.sea file. This contains the following files:

Agfa DuoScan T1200

Agfa SnapScan

Agfa StudioScan

Agfa StudioStar

Scanner Catalog

The first four files are the ISIS-drivers. This driver must be installed on your system depending which scanner that you have.

Drop the right file in the extension folder in the system folder. After restart, you must see this file in the Chooser.

Replace the existing Scanner Catalog file with the one you downloaded. For that, go to the System folder Preferences folder Caere folder, where you will find the Scanner Catalog. Now, replace the existing catalog file with the one you have downloaded.

Restart the system.

It is not necessary to activate the ISIS-driver in the Chooser. The application will find this extension automatically. When you start the OmniPage application, make sure you select the right scanner out from the list.

Note: the Scanner Catalog for the OmniPage LE is not the same as the one for the OmniPage Pro.

Return to Top of Page.

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Use the links on this page to download the latest version of Agfa SnapScan 1212U drivers. All drivers available for download have been scanned by antivirus program. Please choose the relevant version according to your computer s operating system and click the download button.

Agfa SnapScan 1212U Drivers Download.

This page contains the driver installation download for BenQ Scanner 5000 in supported models PI915GLM that are running a supported operating system.

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Computer is a HP Pavilion dv8 with Win7 Pro 64, i7 Intel, and HP installed Bluetooth.  There was no issue with the computer and BPDDMB until recently.  It occured after a MS Update reboot; I do not know if the two are related.  I have added Bluetooth devices

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It was never a question whether my dv8 / Win7 saw Bluetooth devices.  It does.  It was never a question whether it will connect for audio input.  It does.  It reports that it cannot connect via Bluetooth on one screen, while it is playing music from the

Bluetooth connection.  It was never a question of whether Bluetooth Drivers were installed.  There are four installed that do work.  Three from HP Broadcom 1/19/10 v2.1 bthport.sys BTHUSB.SYS fsquirt.exe all 32bit, all digitally signed by MS and one from

MS 6.21.06 enumerator bthenum.sys, 32bit signed.   Apparently a fifth is not necessary, but if it was a fifth of scotch it might help.

Removing all Bluetooth Drivers and reinstalling does not work and is a buggy procedure, and System Restore either from boot or with the O/S running has no effect either other than screwing everything else up.  Apparently System Restore is to be avoided. 

It does not work, nor report it s activities correctly.  Error. - Nothing Changed means Random Things Changed Just To ____ You Off. RTCJTPYO.

HP Support was called after all else failed, which made things worse, not better.  As usual.  Seems if you cannot fix a problem after concerted effort, the odds that a script reader can fix it are slim.

Is there, or is there not, such a thing as a Bluetooth Peripheral Device Driver that must be present to run Bluetooth connections.  The answer is NO.  The BPDD is not required.  It is a bogus error.  I know this because the HP dv8 worked fine with Bluetooth

for 3 months.  And after the BPDDMB, it continued to work.  It just reports an error.  I get really irritated when a new computer tells me it s busted.

Update:

This computer I am typing from HP IQ526 TouchSmart w/Vista 64 Home Premium is now doing the exact same thing.  It is 1.3 years old, and has never done this before.  Last night there was a MS Update; this morning there was a BPDDMB Bluetooth Peripheral

Device Driver Missing Bug.   It uses 4 drivers with the same names but different versions Vista.

Problem.  It s Bluetooth feature was off.  There are no Bluetooth devices near it with active Bluetooth capability.  Why did it need a driver.  What triggered it.

So it s not exclusively Win7, and it s not Bluetooth Devices that cause it.  It is not the drivers, because the driver versions predate the issue. It is internal to the O/S.   We used to call these bugs back in the old days before it was called blame-shifting.

I imagine somebody important will see it on their computer at MS or HP and it will be solved then.

I will figure out how to cripple the BT erroneous error reporting when I get bored.  For now it s just a nuisance.

I have a Microsoft Bluetooth Notebook Mouse 5000 that I bought when I bought my new Thinkpad with built-in Bluetooth. At the time I was running 64-bit Vista and all.

Samsung WWAN Y3400 Data Card Modem Driver for Windows 7 32/64bit, ver.5.40.3671.0 Hardware IDs: Device Name: Samsung Kiera2 Wireless Modem.

Bluetooth Peripheral Device Driver Error

Fixed this problem. Eventually stumbled on a more recent driver update which for some reason isn t listed with a HP support site for my device, or; b the default.

Conexant CX20548 Modem Driver: Modem Driver Installer: 10Moons OSLONG Tuner: 10Moons TS101 Tuner: 56FW92 Modem: 56FW92-D Modem: 56HP92-D Modem.

Command Conquer Red Alert Patch

command conquer red alert patch command conquer red alert patch
  • Mar 31, 2010  You must have Administrator Rights on Windows XP in order to install Red Alert. This is a Windows 2000 and Windows XP setting. Please contact your.
  • Jul 18, 2009  Command Conquer: Red Alert 3 v1.12 English Patchfree full download.
  • Nov 02, 2008  Command Conquer: Red Alert 3 v1.03 English Patchfree full download.

Far Cry, Red Alert 1 and 2 going free as DLC. Ubi and EA offering games as free downloads to preorders of Far Cry 2 and Command Conquer: Red Alert 3; original Red.

command conquer red alert patch command conquer red alert patch command conquer red alert patch

Command Conquer: Red Alert: Developer: Westwood Studios: Publisher: Virgin Interactive Sony Computer Entertainment PSN Version: 3.03 Release Date: PC.

From Westwood Studios: Command and Conquer, one of the most popular strategy games in recent memory, is back and bigger and badder than ever with Red Alert.

File Info: Command Conquer: Red Alert Full Game - Allied

Title:

Command Conquer: Red Alert Full Game - Allied

Author:

EA Games

Created:

3/16/2009

Updated:

3/31/2010

Downloads:

Also known as:

C C: Red Alert, Command and Conquer: Red Alert

Description: Command Conquer: Red Alert Full Game - Allied

This is the FULL version of Command Conquer: Red Alert. With over 40 missions across an interweaving storyline, and a riveting soundtrack, Command Conquer Red Alert s superb gameplay is still easy to take hold of and highly addictive after all these years, Red Alert puts the fate of the world in your hands.

NOTE: This requires the Allied Disc as well.

You must have Administrator Rights on Windows XP in order to install Red Alert. This is a Windows 2000 and Windows XP setting. Please contact your system administrator or Microsoft for instructions on setting your administrator privileges.

To find out if you are logged in as the Admin follow the following steps:

Click the Start button on the Windows Taskbar.

Select Settings.

Click on Control Panel

Select User Accounts. Under the user tab you should see the user name as Administrator.

To install the game, follow these steps:

Insert the Red Alert disk into the CD-ROM drive. Close the installation window that appears if Autoplay is turned on.

Select My Computer.

Right-click the CD-ROM Drive with the game in it and select Explore.

Double-click the Setup95 folder.

Right-click the install.exe file and select Send to. Select Desktop from the drop-down menu. This will create a shortcut on the Desktop.

Right-click the shortcut and select Properties.

Click the Compatibility tab.

Check the Run this program in compatibility mode for: box.

Select Windows 95 in the drop-down window below.

Click Apply, then OK.

Double-click the shortcut to install the game.

In order for the game to run properly you must install the latest patch.

Locate the latest Red Alert patch on our FTP site.

Get the latest Red Alert patch

Left-click the patch and drag it to your Desktop.

After completing the download, copy the patch file into the Red Alert installation directory. By default, this is located at C: Westwood RedAlert

Double-click the patch to run the patch file. This will create three more files: Patch.exe, Patch.rtp, and Patch.txt.

Double-click the Patch.exe file to initiate the update process.

More info here: features/tutorials/rafree

Less Information

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Dead Island - Wardrop Mod

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Command & Conquer: Red Alert (Full Game - Allied)

Null Modem Serial Cable Difference

Need RS232 cables for Fanuc, Mitsubishi, Haas, or Yasnac controls. Buy all you need for Fanuc RS232 including USB to serial converters, adapters, software and RS232.

RS232 - V.24/V.28 - IS2110 - X.20 bis for Async - X.21 bis for Sync General. In this document the term RS232 will be used when refered to this serial interface.

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The Difference Between a Null Modem and Straight Through Serial Cable. Hardware: Serial.

null modem serial cable difference

What problems can be solved with Virtual Null Modem. If you have two applications you want to connect to each other using serial ports you need a null modem.

null modem serial cable difference

Data is transmitted and received on pins 2 and 3 respectively. Data Set Ready DSR is an indication from the Data Set i.e., the modem or DSU/CSU that it is on.

Apr 16, 2013  This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics. Dozens of serial data interfaces are used today. Most have been developed for specific.

Virtual Null Modem is a utility which purpose is to emulate one or more virtual RS232 serial ports connected via virtual null-modem cable.

null modem serial cable difference null modem serial cable difference null modem serial cable difference

To addand that s true like my buddy SETWIRE said most null modem cables are not labeled these days with NM but you can look at the color of the cables, if it s.

Features:

No reboot required for virtual serial port. Creating, installing and removing of virtual serial ports occurs at real time;

No borders. You can create any number of virtual serial port pairs with various shematics with handshake, without handshake, with parial handshake etc ;

Virtual serial ports is fully independent. Any other hardware or virtual serial ports are not used or occupied. You even can have no serial ports in your system;

99.9 emulation. Other applications will never see the difference between real serial port and virtual serial ports, created by Virtual Null Modem software;

Perfomance. The link between two virtual serial ports is faster then real null-modem cable connection and depends on your computer system speed;

Hardware reliability. The virtual link is much more reliable than common physical link;

Software reliability. Our drivers for virtual serial ports had been tested with the verifier under Windows XP SP2 and with Microsoft HCT 12.10;

Hi-tech. Virtual Null Modem uses kernel driver technology and supports: WDM, WMI, Power Management, PNP, etc.;

Easy-to-use. Virtual Null Modem software has a simple, menu-driven step by step set-up. Programming is not required to configure the software to configure virtual serial ports and virtual serial ports pairs;

Additional features. If you are software developer, then you can configure each port to simulate a real-world data exchange with errors in data;

Scalability and integrability. You can add, remove virtual null modems from your application by using a command line interface;

On-line help. Press the F1 key at anytime and on-line help will appear providing concise and up to date documentation.

 

Virtual Null Modem supplies a three cut down versions called Professional, Standard and Lite. Standard and Lite versions omit some of the advanced features found in the professional edition and is ideal for users who either want a low cost or free solution or are not interested in more advanced features. Read more here.

Baixar Driver Placa De Rede Realtek 8139

Iniciando download Realtek RTL8139/810x Driver 6.111 - Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8139/810x Driver para Windows XP/Vista/7 Para Windows.

A Placa de Rede Lan PN-8139DL trabalha em 32bits com barramento PCI com altos níveis de taxa de transferência. Auto-negociável 10/100Mbps em half ou full duplex.

Drivers para placas de rede Realtek Ao fazer o download eu aceito os Termos de Uso e Política de Privacidade do Ultradownloads.com.br.

Aplicativo que ajuda a diagnosticar possível problemas com placas de rede REALTEK 8139.

Rede - Realtek RTL8139-810x Fast Ethernet Adapter PCI - download na 4shared. Rede - Realtek RTL8139-810x Fast Ethernet Adapter PCI está hospedado no serviço 4shared.

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4.2

Realtek RTL-81xx Ethernet Controller Driver para Win7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 6.844.985 downloads

Realtek RTL-81xx Ethernet Controller Driver para Windows 7

Realtek RTL8139/810x Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 2.485.073 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8139/810x Driver para Windows XP/Vista/7

4.6

Realtek AC 97 WDM Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 1.151.826 downloads

29 

Drivers de instalação para placa de som Realtek AC 97 WDM.

Realtek 8139 Drivers

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 1.104.507 downloads

54 

Drivers de instalação para a placa de rede Realtek 8139

Realtek AC 97 Audio Codecs

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 917.885 downloads

Drivers de instalação para placa de som Realtek AC 97

3.8

Realtek PCI-E Gigabit Ethernet Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 865.121 downloads

Pacote de drivers para instalação do dispositivo Realtek Gigabit Ethernet.

Utilitário Realtek RTL8139

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 733.329 downloads

48 

Aplicativo que ajuda a diagnosticar possível problemas com placas de rede REALTEK 8139

Realtek Ethernet PCI Express Windows XP/2000/2003

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 721.692 downloads

Pacote de drivers de controladores de rede para chipsets de redes ligados ao chipset central.

4.7

Realtek Wireless LAN Adapter 8187B

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 561.805 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede do modelo Realtek Wireless LAN Adapter 8187B.

3.9

Realtek Wireless LAN Driver

em Wireless Grátis windows 451.669 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede Realtek Wireless LAN Driver para Windows 7.

Realtek AC 97 Audio for Windows 7

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 442.554 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som do modelo

Realtek Wireless Lan RTL8187L Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 405.975 downloads

Driver de instalação para placa de rede sem fio Realtek Wireless Lan RTL8187L.

Realtek ALC883 Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 378.619 downloads

Driver de áudio para a placa de som Realtek ALC883.

Realtek High Definition Audio Codec - Windows XP/2000

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 376.400 downloads

Pacote de instalação do Realtek High Definition Audio Codec para Windows 2000/XP.

Realtek PCIE Wireless Lan

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 362.472 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek PCIE Wireless Lan para Windows 7/8 32 bits.

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4.8

Realtek PCIe LAN Driver Win 7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 334.990 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek PCIe LAN Driver para Server 2008 e Windows 7.

Realtek Ethernet RTL8129 Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 327.558 downloads

Drivers para a instalação de placas de rede do modelo RTL8129 da Realtek.

3.5

Realtek RTL8106E-US Ethernet Controller Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 237.010 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa derede do modelo Realtek RTL8106E-US Ethernet Controller para Windows 7.

Realtek High Definition Audio 32bits

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 236.234 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de som de modelo Realtek High Definition Audio para Windows XP/Vista/7/8 32bits

Realtek RTL8187 Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 235.260 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek RTL8187.

4.1

Realtek HD Audio Driver for Windows Vista/7

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 232.196 downloads

Drivers de instalação da placa de som Realtek High Definition Audio para Windows Vista/7.

Realtek RTL Gigabit and Fast Ethernet NIC Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 179.345 downloads

Pacote de drivers do modelo Realtek RTL Gigabit and Fast Ethernet NIC.

Realtek RTL8187B WLAN NIC

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 175.192 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek RTL8187B WLAN NIC.

Asus ET1603 Ethernet Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 169.431 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede do computador Asus ET1603.

Realtek 10/100M PCI for windows 7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 157.057 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede do modelo Realtek 10/100M PCI.

Realtek RTL8187b USB-1210 Windows

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 153.916 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8187b USB-1210 para Windows XP/Vista/7.

K8M800-M2 Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 144.513 downloads

Driver de Audio para placa-mãe K8M800-M2.

Realtek RTL8130/RTL8139B L Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 142.735 downloads

Driver para placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8130/RTL8139B L.

Realtek RTL8192SE Wireless for Win 7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 135.031 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek RTL8192SE Wireless.

4.3

Realtek HD Audio Driver for Windows 2000/XP

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 134.273 downloads

Drivers de instalação da placa de som Realtek High Definition Audio para Windows 2000/XP.

Página 2 de 10

Primeira

Realtek Ethernet RTL8019 AS Drivers

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 131.350 downloads

Drivers para instalação da placa de rede Realtek Ethernet RTL8019 AS.

2.7

Compaq Mini CQ10-405DX Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para Win7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 130.935 downloads

Driver da placa de rede Realtek para Notebook Compaq Mini CQ10-405DX em sistemas Windows 7.

Realtek High Definition Audio 64bits

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 129.233 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de som de modelo Realtek High Definition Audio para Windows XP/Vista/7/8 64bits.

Realtek Ethernet RTL8029 AS Drivers

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 128.766 downloads

36 

Drivers para instalação da placa de rede Realtek Ethernet RTL8029 AS.

MSI P67A-GD80 B3 Realtek LAN Driver para Win 7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 126.620 downloads

Driver da placa de LAN Realtek Chipset MSI P67A-GD80 para sistemas Windows 7.

Realtek RTL8192DE-VC 802.11a/b/g/n Wireless LAN Adapter

em Placas de Rede Grátis linux 123.063 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8192DE-VC 802.11a/b/g/n Wireless LAN Adapter para Linux.

Realtek RTL81xx LAN Driver Win7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 110.439 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL81xx LAN Driver

Realtek Ethernet PCI Express Windows Vista/2008

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 105.820 downloads

Pacote de drivers de controladores de rede para chipsets de redes ligados ao chipset central

Realtek RTL8110SC L Driver para Windows 7

em Placas de Video Grátis windows 105.230 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de vídeo Realtek RTL8110SC L para Windows 7

Realtek High Definition Audio Codec

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 92.238 downloads

Pacote de drivers Realtek High Definition Audio Codec para Windows Vista/7/8.

Gigabyte GA-G41M-ES2L Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 91.213 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa mãe Gigabyte GA-G41M-ES2L.

Realtek ALC269 Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 78.387 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som do modelo Realtek ALC269 Audio Driver.

Realtek RTL8723A Wi-Fi Software

em Wireless Grátis windows 67.949 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede Wireless do modelo Realtek RTL8723A para Windows 7/8.

2.3

Asrock G31DE LAN Driver 5708

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 61.043 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Asrock G31DE LAN.

ECS MCP61M-M3 v2.0 VIA HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 60.296 downloads

ECS MCP61M-M3 v2.0 VIA HD Audio Driver para Sistema Operacional Windows.

Página 3 de 10

Realtek Ethernet PCI Express Windows 98SE/ME

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 58.136 downloads

Realtek RTL8192E Wireless for Win7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 57.327 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek RTL8192E Wireless.

Realtek RTL8192SE Wireless Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 55.265 downloads

Realtek High Definition Audio Codec Windows Vista

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 55.096 downloads

Pacote de drivers para Realtek High Definition Audio Codec.

Realtek RTL-81xx Ethernet Controller Driver para Vista

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 53.257 downloads

Realtek RTL-81xx Ethernet Controller Driver para Windows Vista.

Realtek RTL8187L Wireless USB Adapter

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 52.587 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8187L Wireless USB Adapter para Windows 7.

Realtek RTL8190 / RTL8192E Wireless Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 51.700 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8190 / RTL8192E Wireless Driver para Windows XP/ Win 2000 / VISTA.

Realtek AC 97 Driver para Vista

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 51.155 downloads

Driver para placa de som do modelo Realtek AC 97 Driver para Vista.

MSI G43D3M Realtek HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 47.301 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som do modelo Realtek HD da placa mãe MSI G43D3M.

Realtek PCIe LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 46.179 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placas de rede Realtek PCIe.

Realtek USB 3.0 LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 45.508 downloads

Pacote de drivers do modelo Realtek USB 3.0 LAN Driver para Windows 7/8.

Realtek RTL8401/RTL8401P Driver

em Placas de Video Grátis windows 43.995 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de vídeo do modelo Realtek RTL8401/RTL8401P.

Realtek ALC622 Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 40.865 downloads

Pacote de drivers para instalação da placa de som Realtek ALC622.

2.8

MSI 870-C43 Realtek LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 37.003 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede do modelo Realtek da placa mãe MSI 870-C43.

Gigabyte GA-P31-S3L LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 36.752 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Gigabyte GA-P31-S3L.

Página 4 de 10

2003-2015 Zigg Downloads

Asrock P55DE Pro LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 36.399 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Asrock P55DE Pro.

HP Mini 110-3130nr Notebook Realtek Card Reader Driver para Win7

em Drivers em Geral Grátis windows 34.768 downloads

Driver para o Leitor de Cartões Realtek para Notebook HP Mini 110-3130nr com Sistema Operacional Windows 7.

Asrock 785GM-S3 Realtek HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 33.498 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som da marca Realtek HD Audio da placa mãe Asrock 785GM-S3

Gigabyte GA-MA78LMT-S2H Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 32.707 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa mãe Gigabyte GA-MA78LMT-S2H.

ECS IC780M-A2 Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 32.046 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de audio Realtek HD da placa mãe ECS IC780M-A2.

MSI P45D3 Platinum Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 29.978 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de áudio Realtek da placa mãe MSI P45D3 Platinum.

Realtek RTL8190 / RTL8192E Wireless Driver Win 7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 26.607 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8190 / RTL8192E Wireless Driver para Windows 7.

Realtek RTL8192E Wireless Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 26.563 downloads

Toshiba Satellite Pro L350 Realtek LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 25.407 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Toshiba Satellite Pro L350 Realtek LAN Driver para Windows 7.

Realtek High Definition Audio for Linux

em Multimídia / Som Grátis linux 22.335 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som do modelo Realtek High Definition Audio para Linux.

Realtek RTL8187b USB-1210 Linux

em Placas de Rede Grátis linux 21.664 downloads

Pacote de drivers da placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8187b USB-1210 para Linux.

Asus P5G41T-M LX Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 21.268 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa mãe Asus P5G41T-M LX.

Realtek RTL81xx LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 18.336 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek RTL81xx LAN.

Realtek Gigabit LAN Driver 6208

em Placas de Video Grátis windows 16.896 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de vídeo Realtek Gigabit LAN Driver 6208.

Realtek LAN Driver 6218

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 15.794 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek LAN Driver 6218.

Página 5 de 10

Asus M5A88-V EVO Realtek Audio Driver WHQL

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 15.778 downloads

Asus M5A88-V EVO Realtek Audio Driver WHQL para Sistema Operacional Windows.

HP Mini 110-3130nr Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para Win7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 15.567 downloads

Driver da placa de rede LAN realtek para Notebook HP Mini 110-3130nr em sistema operacional Windows 7.

Sony VGN-Z690/VGN-Z690J Realtek HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 15.525 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek do notebook Sony Vaio VGN-Z690/VGN-Z690J.

Realtek RTL8110SC L Driver para Windows 8

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 15.251 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede do modelo Realtek RTL8110SC L Driver para Windows 8.

ASRock K8NF4G-VSTA Realtek HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 14.955 downloads

Driver HD Audio Realtek ASRock K8NF4G-VSTA.

Gigabyte GA-P55A-UD6 LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 14.534 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Gigabyte GA-P55A-UD6.

MSI G41M4-F Realtek LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 14.397 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe MSI G41M4-F.

Gigabyte GA-Z68P-DS3 rev. 1.0 Realtek Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 14.106 downloads

Gigabyte GA-Z68P-DS3 rev. 1.0 Realtek Audio Driver para Windows.

Realtek AC97 Audio CODECs for Vista

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 13.894 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek AC97 Audio CODECs for Vista.

Acer Aspire 3935 Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 13.738 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek ALC888S do notebook Acer Aspire 3935.

Realtek Gigabit LAN Driver 5708

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 13.439 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa mãe Leadtek WinFast 9600QSA BIOS.

Asus W90VP LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 13.008 downloads

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em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 12.627 downloads

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em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 8.131 downloads

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Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa mãe MSI P55-GD55.

Jetway 945GCDMS Realtek LAN Driver

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ECS X58B-A2 HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 5.947 downloads

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Asus M4A78 Realtek Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 5.841 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Relatek da placa-mãe Asus M4A78.

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em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 5.411 downloads

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Compaq Mini CQ10-550CA Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para XP

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 4.901 downloads

Driver da placa de rede realtek para Notebook Compaq Mini CQ10-550CA com sistema Windows XP.

Asus N81Vp Realtek LAN Driver

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Gigabyte GA-790XTA-UD4 LAN Driver

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Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Intel da placa mãe Gigabyte GA-790XTA-UD4.

MSI 760GM-E51 LAN Driver

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Asus ET2400X Realtek LAN Driver

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Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek do computador Asus ET2400X.

Gigabyte GA-A55-DS3P rev. 1.0 Realtek Ethernet Diagnostic Utility

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 3.605 downloads

Gigabyte GA-A55-DS3P rev. 1.0 Realtek Ethernet Diagnostic Utility para Windows.

Asrock 760GM-GS3 Realtek HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 3.457 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa-mãe Asrock 760GM-GS3.

HP Mini 210-1020EK Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para Win7

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 3.456 downloads

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em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 3.401 downloads

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Gigabyte GA-Z68P-DS3 rev. 1.0 Realtek Ethernet Diagnostic Utility

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HP Mini 110-3130nr Notebook Realtek Card Reader Driver para XP

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Driver para o Leitor de Cartões Realtek para Notebook HP Mini 110-3130nr com Sistema Operacional Windows XP.

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ASRock K8NF6G-VSTA Realtek HD Audio Driver para Vista

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Driver ASRock K8NF6G-VSTA Realtek HD Audio para Windows Vista.

Asus ITX-220 LAN Driver

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Pacote de drivers para placa de rede onboard Asus ITX-220.

Magic Pro MP-P45 Extreme S LAN Driver

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Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Magic Pro MP-P45 Extreme S.

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HP Mini 110-3130nr Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para XP

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Driver da placa de rede LAN Realtek para Notebook HP Mini 110-3130nr em sistema operacional XP.

MSI P55M-GD41 Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 2.597 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek HD da placa mãe MSI P55M-GD41.

Realtek Gigabit LAN Driver 5702

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 2.275 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek Gigabit LAN da placa mãe Asrock A770DEPlus.

HP Mini 210-1020EK Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para XP

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 2.105 downloads

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Asrock M3A760GMH Realtek HD Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 2.025 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa-mãe Asrock M3A760GMH.

Gigabyte GA-EP41T-UD3L LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 1.978 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Gigabyte GA-EP41T-UD3L.

Gigabyte GA-EP35-DS4 LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 1.709 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa rede Realtek da placa mãe Gigabyte GA-EP35-DS4.

Compaq Mini CQ10-405DX Notebook Realtek Card Reader Driver Win 7

em Drivers em Geral Grátis windows 1.518 downloads

Driver para o Reader Card Realtek em Notebook Compaq Mini CQ10-405DX com sistema operacional Windows 7.

Realtek RTL8153 Lan Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 1.487 downloads

Driver de rede para placas Realtek RTL8153.

MSI P43T-C51 Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 1.477 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa mãe MSI P43T-C51.

MSI X48C Platinum Audio Driver

em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 1.343 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de som Realtek da placa mãe MSI X48C Platinum.

HP Mini 210-1000SA Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para XP

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 1.310 downloads

HP Mini 210-1000SA Notebook Realtek LAN Driver para Windows XP.

HP Mini 210-1020EK Notebook Realtek Card Reader Driver

em Drivers em Geral Grátis windows 1.221 downloads

HP Mini 210-1020EK Notebook Realtek Card Reader Driver para Windows 7.

Asrock X58 Deluxe3 LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 992 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Asrock X58 Deluxe3.

Gigabyte GA-Z68A-D3-B3 rev. 1.0 Realtek LAN Driver para Vista

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 988 downloads

Gigabyte GA-Z68A-D3-B3 rev. 1.0 Realtek LAN Driver para Windows Vista.

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Asrock P5B Pro LAN Driver

em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 985 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek da placa mãe Asrock P5B Pro.

Compaq Mini CQ10-405DX Notebook Realtek Card Reader Driver Win XP

em Drivers em Geral Grátis windows 437 downloads

Driver para o Reader Card Realtek em Notebook Compaq Mini CQ10-405DX com sistema operacional Windows XP.

Realtek Wireless LAN Driver para Win 10

em Wireless Grátis windows 418 downloads

Pacote de drivers para placa de rede Realtek Wireless LAN Driver para Windows 10 64bits.

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em Placas de Rede Grátis windows 6.843.649 downloads

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em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 1.151.779 downloads

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em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 917.816 downloads

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em Multimídia / Som Grátis windows 378.588 downloads

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Contato    FAQ.

Pacote para instalação de drivers da placa de rede PCI Realtek, oferecendo também, suporte aos seguintes modelos: RTL8100B, RTL8100C, RTL8101L, RTL8139C.

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Dongle Interface users:

VCDS-Lite is NOT

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  • In thinking about what I would like to make with a Charm Pack, I decided to replicate this little mini-quilt/table-topper that I made last fall.
  • Transcript: Hi, it s Jenny, from the Missouri Star Quilt Company. I d like to do another tutorial for you on the Disappearing Nine-Patch. Look at this adorable.
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Hi, it s Jenny, from the Missouri Star Quilt Company. I d like to do another tutorial for you on the Disappearing Nine-Patch.

Look at this adorable quilt we made using Hunky Dory Charm Packs. We used approximately two Charm Packs, and we used a little bit for the border, and a little bit for the outer border, and we scalloped the edge, but what I want to show you is how to put this darling little block together.

This is the block right here. It has a little tiny corner square, two smaller squares, and the 5 block from the Charm Pack. This is called the Disappearing Nine-Patch and I want to show you how it works.

For the Disappearing Nine-Patch you ll need a set of charms, and this is the Hunky Dory Charms, that s the one we just did the baby quilt out of, and what we re going to do is we re going to take nine of those charms and we re going to sew them together in a giant nine- patch.

So, as you can see this is not at all a matching set, but it ll help you

to see what I mean, and we re just going to show you this. So, you sew all

this together. You re going to sew them at , press them open, they ll all be together like this.

Then, you re going to iron them, and you re going to lay it flat on your counter like this. Then you re going to take your ruler and you re going to put it right in the middle, right in the middle, OK. And you re going to cut it. Cut this whole big block like this, and then you re going to cut it like this. What it s going to do is it s going to quarter this middle square. Let me show you how we do that.

So, this is another ginormous nine-patch. You ll see it has nine charms that we ve sewn together, and then we ve cut it immediately in half, and see what that gives you. It gives you this darling little squares that look like you ve done a lot of work but you haven t really done a lot of work.

So that s what makes a quilt fun, because it gives you a big WOW without the work. So here s what we re going to do now, when you put this together, there s several different ways you can do it. You can line it up really linear and make them look like they re sashed, but my favorite way is to line up the seams, so, that no seams come together. So, whenever you put the blocks next to each other you just want to make sure that there s no seams coming together. You don t have to match anything.

So, you end up with this darling quilt that the blocks are all over. I ve seen this done several ways. One of the ladies did it using Kansas Troubles, and her middle square was a black square. And what you have to remember is that all your outside corners, again if you ll look, your outside corners is where you want your largest prints to be. Your favorite prints should be in the outside edges.

Those are the ones that are not going to get cut at all. The middle one you want to have be the one that you want quartered and so on this Hunky Dory quilt right here, I actually took some yardage, and cut out 5 squares and for my center block right here, the one that was going to get quartered, I did those in this aqua blue color.

So, all my center squares are the same when they re put together, and see how I lined them up with no seams matching. It makes a really easy quick baby quilt that s adorable. And then I took the aqua and brought that out into the border as well.

So, I hope you enjoy this fun tutorial, on the Disappearing Nine-Patch, from the Missouri Star Quilt Company.

I m using hartfield by barbara brackman. it has 30 charms. lay out 9 different charms that you like together. don t forget to throw in some contrast.

Disappearing Nine Patch Quilt Block Tutorial

Close Privacy Policy

Privacy Policy / Your California Privacy Rights

Revised and posted as of March 4, 2013

 

Prime Publishing, LLC Company, we or us reserves the right to revise this Privacy Policy at any time simply by posting such revision, so we encourage you to review it periodically. In order to track any changes to this Privacy Policy, we will include a historical reference at the top of this document.

This Privacy Policy will tell you, among other things:

Your California privacy rights.

How we collect information and what information we collect.

How we may use information.

How we may share information.

Your choices regarding the sharing of information.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT/YOUR AGREEMENT

Company websites are not intended for use by individuals under the age of 18 or those who are not legal residents of the United States. By using our website or submitting information to us, you consent to the Company s use and sharing of the information collected or submitted as described in this Privacy Policy. If you are not 18 years of age or older and a valid resident of the United States or you do not agree with the terms of this Privacy Policy, do not provide us with any information or use any of the products or services offered or provided on Company websites or through Company technology.

YOUR CALIFORNIA PRIVACY RIGHTS

Beginning January 1, 2005 under California s Shine the Light law, California residents who provide personal information in obtaining products or services for personal, family or household use are entitled to either: 1 a list detailing the categories of information shared and the entities to which such information was provided; or 2 to be notified of a mechanism by which a consumer may opt-out of having their information shared with third parties. We have elected the second option. To opt-out of having your information shared with third parties please write to us.

HOW DO WE COLLECT INFORMATION AND WHAT INFORMATION DO WE COLLECT.

We collect and combine personally identifiable information PII and non-personally identifiable information Non-PII through various sources, including those discussed below. For your reference, PII is data collected with an intention to specifically identify, contact or locate a person, including but not limited to name, address, telephone number, or e-mail address. Conversely, Non-PII is data that is not used to specifically identify, contact or locate an individual, including but not limited to zip code, gender, age, or IP address.

Distribution Partners

Website operators that license our ad serving technology pass information to us so that we may serve advertisements to you. The information passed may include, but is not limited to, your IP address, e-mail address, name, mailing address, telephone number, date of birth, and gender.

Offer Forms

We also collect information about you when you complete a survey or offer form on one of our websites or web pages. This information may include, but is not limited to: your e-mail address, name, mailing address, telephone number, date of birth, gender, and payment information; information about your background, interests, health, education, career goals, and shopping preferences; and any other personal information or unique preference information you provide to us or our advertisers.

Website Registration Forms

We collect information about you when you register on one of our websites. This registration information may include, but is not limited to your:

e-mail address

full name

mailing address

telephone number

date of birth

gender

Publisher Partners

When you complete a registration or offer form that is hosted by one of our website publisher partners on our behalf, the website publisher partner may submit all or a portion of the information that you submitted on the form to the Company. This information may include, but is not limited to: your IP address, e-mail address, name, mailing address, telephone number, date of birth, gender, and payment information; information about your background, interests, health, education, career goals, and shopping preferences; and any other information you provide to our website publisher partner.

Marketing Partners

We may receive information about you, including but not limited to your IP address, e-mail address, first name, last name, mailing address, and telephone number, from third party marketing partners that provide us with consumer data to manage on their behalf.

Automatic Information/Digital Identifiers

We may automatically receive and store certain types of information about you through the data sources listed above.

You may be familiar with the term cookies, which are unique alphanumeric identifiers that store information on your computer. A cookie is placed on your computer when your web browser accesses our website. We use cookies for tracking transactions and the user characteristics explained in detail throughout this Privacy Policy. If you choose, there are utilities available for purchase from independent software providers to install on your computer as well as tools/preferences you can choose through most web browsers to make website visits anonymous. Of course, cookies let you have a more satisfying website experience, so we recommend that you leave them turned on.

We also collect information through our web server applications. This information includes your Internet Protocol or IP address, date/time stamp, browser type, and referring URL.

Additionally, we may use pixel tracking technology to track the completion of transactions with us or our advertisers, the source information for those transactions, and your IP address, date/time stamp, browser type, and referring URL.

Government Forms

The Company may be required to create, collect, maintain, and submit certain information required by the government, such as IRS Forms W-9 and 1099. This information, which may include your taxpayer identification number, will not be used, shared, transferred, or sold for marketing purposes.

HOW DO WE USE THIS INFORMATION.

We may use the collected PII and Non-PII for any legally permissible purpose in our sole discretion, including but not limited to those explained below.

Ad Serving

We may serve advertisements to you based, in part, on your IP address, the demographic and geographic information you submitted to the Company during the website registration process, and other socio-economic information, psychographic information, Internet behavior i.e., browsing, search, shopping, purchase, and ad response behavior, and lifestyle information about you that we obtain from affiliated entities and from third parties.

We allow third-party companies to serve ads and/or collect certain anonymous information when you visit our Web site. These companies may use non-personally identifiable information e.g., click stream information, browser type, time and date, subject of advertisements clicked or scrolled over during your visits to this and other Web sites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services likely to be of greater interest to you. These companies typically use a cookie or third party web beacon to collect this information. To learn more about this behavioral advertising practice or to opt-out of this type of advertising, you can visit www.networkadvertising.org.

Pre-select/Pre-fill Offers

Our website technology may pre-select certain offers for you to view based on the demographic and geographic information you submitted to the Company during the website registration process. Additionally, this technology may pre-fill some or all of the offers data fields with the information you submitted during the website registration process in order to prevent you from having to re-enter this information. We may not show all of the pre-filled data fields to you.

Upsell

We utilize customized post transactional or upsell technology to help advertisers generate sales, while providing you with a series of great offers we think may be of interest to you. The way it works is simple: once you purchase a product or service from one of our reward advertisers, you will be offered additional products or services that we think may be of interest to you. If you elect to purchase products or services from an advertiser in the post transactional channel, we will pass the information that you provided during the initial transaction to the subsequent advertiser, including but not limited to your credit card information. This information pass is done to enhance and simplify your purchasing experience. Your information will only be passed to an advertiser in the post transactional channel after you have elected to purchase their product or service. By electing to purchase their product or service you consent to the passing of your data to the third party advertiser in question.

Customer Service and Fulfillment

We may use your information to operate the website promotion, service your account and to fulfill rewards earned through Company websites. We may also use your information to verify your identity or claimed account status and, where we consider appropriate, investigate your compliance with the terms and conditions of the website promotion or any advertiser offer. We do retain customer service correspondence.

Credit Card Preauthorization

By submitting your credit card information to us or to one of our advertisers, you are authorizing the Company or its agent to periodically verify that your credit card account is valid and has credit available by charging, and thereafter crediting, a small sum to the card.

Marketing

We may use your information in our online e.g., e-mail marketing and offline e.g., telemarketing, cell phone text messaging, skip tracing, and direct mail marketing programs. If you would like to be removed from these programs please write to us.

HOW DO WE SHARE INFORMATION.

We may share the collected PII and Non-PII for any legally permissible purpose in our sole discretion, including but not limited to those explained below.

Within the Company

We may share information we collect with affiliated companies, including our parent company and other subsidiaries of our parent company, for use in their ad serving and marketing programs. This Privacy Policy does not apply to affiliated companies and their collection, use and sharing of information.

Vendors

We may share your information with various third party vendors that are not part of the Company, including but not limited to vendors that provide us with technology to deploy commercial e-mail, vendors that sell the products or services for which you have qualified through one of our websites, and shipping companies that we utilize to ship products to you.

Advertisers

When you participate in an offer by completing a form, we will transfer the information you submitted on the form to the applicable advertiser.

When you answer yes or no to a marketing or survey question, some or all of the information that you submitted during the website registration process will be transferred to advertisers that we believe may be of interest to you without providing you with another opportunity to review the information.

When you select yes next to an offer, we will transfer some or all of the information that you submitted during the website registration process to the applicable advertiser without providing you with another opportunity to review the information.

Ad Serving Companies

We may use third party ad networks or ad serving companies to serve advertisements on our websites. We pass information about you to these companies so that they can deliver targeted advertisements that they believe will be of interest to you. The information passed to these companies may include, but is not limited to, your IP address, e-mail address, name, mailing address, telephone number, date of birth, gender, and any other information you provide to us. Web pages that are served by these companies will state that they are powered by or ads by the applicable company and will contain a link to that company s privacy policy.

Google, as a third party vendor, uses cookies to serve ads on our site.

Google s use of the DART cookie enables it to serve ads to our users based on their visit to our sites and other sites on the Internet.

Users may opt out of the use of the DART cookie by visiting the Google ad and content network privacy policy.

We may share, license or sell your information to third parties for various marketing purposes, including their online e.g., e-mail marketing and offline e.g., telemarketing, cell phone text messaging, skip tracing, and direct mail marketing programs. If you would like to be removed from these programs write to us.

Data Enhancement/Appending/Validation

We may use third party service providers to enhance our database with additional elements, including but not limited to age ranges present in your household, whether you own or rent a home, the length of time you have lived at your residence, whether you are a mail order buyer or responder, household income, and gender. Further, we may use third party service providers to append telephone numbers to other data points we have in our database. We also may use third party service providers to validate the data we have in our database.

Additionally, we may share, license or sell your information to third parties for use in their data validation, enhancement, information verification services, and, to the extent permitted by law, individual reference or look-up services.

Third Party Cookies

 Notwithstanding anything else in this policy, we or a data provider we have engaged may place or recognize a unique cookie on your browser to enable you to receive customized ads or content.   These cookies contain no personally identifiable information.  The cookies may reflect de-identified demographic or other data linked to data you voluntarily have submitted to us, e.g., your email address, that we may share with a data provider solely in hashed, non-human readable form. To opt-out of these cookies, please go to

Governmental Agencies or Other Companies

We may share your information with law enforcement officials or governmental agencies: 1 in response to their request; 2 when permitted or required by law; or 3 to establish our compliance with applicable laws, rules, regulations, or guidelines.

We may store and share your information with third parties for suppression or opt-out purposes.

We also may share your information with third parties when: 1 trying to protect against or prevent actual or potential fraud or unauthorized transactions; 2 investigating fraud that has already taken place; 3 enforcing or applying existing terms and conditions and/or other agreements; 4 protecting the rights, property or safety of our websites, our users or others; or 5 responding to subpoenas, court orders or legal process, or to establish or exercise our legal rights or defend against legal claims.

In all cases, this information is not provided to these entities or persons for marketing purposes.

Right to Transfer

Should the Company choose to sell or transfer business assets, it is possible that the information we possess may be transferred as part of that transaction. The Company may decide to retain a copy of the information post sale or transfer.

COMPANY CUSTOMER CHOICES

Marketing Communications and Unsubscribe Information

By completing and submitting a Company registration form, you are consenting to receive marketing communications from the Company and its third party marketing partners. If, after you have shared your information with the Company, you decide that you do not want to receive marketing communications or newsletters from the Company and its third party marketing partners, you can discontinue the communications by clicking here and filling out our form. If you have registered or submitted information under more than one e-mail account, you must submit separate unsubscribe requests for each account.

Request for More Information

As it relates to marketing communications or any other questions you might have about our Privacy Policy, please write to us at Prime Publishing, LLC, 3400 Dundee Road, Suite 220, Northbrook, IL  60062.

WHAT HAPPENS IF I HIT A LINK TO ANOTHER SITE FROM A COMPANY WEBSITE.

Our websites may offer links to other websites. Other websites have their own terms of use and privacy and security policies. If you choose to visit one of these sites, you should review the policies that govern that particular site.

APPLICATION OF THIS PRIVACY POLICY

This Privacy Policy applies to all information collected by or submitted to the Company. Other affiliated entities of the Company may obtain information independently from transactions and experiences with you or from other sources. This Privacy Policy does not pertain to that information.

WHAT IS THE POLICY WITH RESPECT TO COMMUNICATING WITH CHILDREN.

We recognize the unique privacy concerns regarding children. We are committed to carefully protecting privacy where children are involved no matter the point of contact. In particular, our intention is to fully comply with the Children s Online Privacy Protection Act COPPA. Per COPPA guidelines, we do not knowingly collect PII from children under the age of 13. If a parent or guardian is made aware that a child under the age of 13 has provided us with PII through any point of contact, click here to contact us and we will delete the information about the child referenced from our files.

SECURITY

There is no such thing as complete security on the Internet or otherwise. The Company uses various security techniques on our websites to help protect against the loss, misuse or modification of information we ve collected from you. When you access your personal information or transmit information to us, that information is stored on servers that we have taken steps to protect from unauthorized access or intrusion. While we strive to protect your information, the Company cannot ensure or warrant the security of any information you transmit to us. You acknowledge and assume this risk when communicating with the Company, its partners and affiliates.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT ANY DISPUTE OVER PRIVACY IS SUBJECT TO THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS PRIVACY POLICY, AS WELL AS THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS WEBSITE INCLUDING LIMITATIONS ON DAMAGES. YOU AGREE THAT THE COMPANY S LIABILITY FOR ANY BREACH OF THIS PRIVACY POLICY SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE VALUE OF THE TRANSACTIONS OR SERVICES PROVIDED TO YOU BY THE COMPANY TO THE EXTENT SUCH CLAIM IS NOT OTHERWISE BARRED BY OUR TERMS AND CONDITIONS.

Close Privacy Policy.

Hi there, I m Elizabeth Dackson from Don t Call Me Betsy, and I m so happy to be back at the Moda Bake Shop for another quilt tutorial. This super simple quilt.

nine patch tutorial

This easy-to-piece quilt is made from Tula Pink s delicious new line, Hushabye. In her inimitable style, she has cleverly hidden a menagerie of cute creatures.

20 Free Nine Patch Quilt Patterns

Now lay out the squares as shown at left. Using a scant 1/4 seam allowance, sew three horizontal rows of squares. Press seams towards the.

Loco Christmas Edition Crack

I have been receiving many questions from my students and customers about how they can generate traffic to their website. What is shocking to me is that some of them do not even know that they have to generate traffic.

Traffic is the lifeblood of any business. You may have the most beautiful website, or a website that is touted to have an excellent conversion rate, but if your website does not get any traffic, then you are not going to get any sales. A website without traffic is like a shopping mall without visitors.

There are two main types of traffic.

There s free traffic and paid traffic.

Paid traffic gets you traffic instantly in most cases. However, you will have to continually invest in paid traffic in order to get that stream of traffic.

Free traffic may not get you traffic immediately, but its main purpose is to bring you a steady stream of traffic in the long run.

Either method you choose involves getting your website link to your target audience and potential buyers. I will briefly run through a few traffic methods in this post.

Facebook Ads

Facebook has approximately 2 billion users. You have a huge market to tap into right there.

If you re not advertising on Facebook, you re missing out on a huge potential goldmine. There are many ways you can advertise on Facebook, but for starters, you should create what is known as a news feed ad.

These ads show up on the Facebook news feed of people you target. You target people based on their interests.

For example, if you are selling a fitness course, then you may opt to target people who like fitness experts such as Ashley Borden, Jillian Michaels or Tony Horton.

You could also target people who like fitness clubs such as California Fitness or Fitness First. I recommend you keep your budget to 10 a day.

You can send your traffic to a squeeze page, a landing page, or your own fan page.

Just bear in mind that sending traffic to your own fan page is typically cheaper than sending people out of Facebook.

Email Solo Ads

Email solo ads are ads you buy from other email marketers.

You pay the marketer to send an email to their list, promoting your own squeeze page so that you can build a list too.

This form of traffic is really the most targeted traffic you can get if you are building an email list. However, solo ads are most popular in the internet marketing niche. You may find solo ad vendors selling solo ads for other niches, but those may not be as popular as solo ads for the internet marketing niche.

Solo ad vendors sell solo ads based on a certain number of clicks currently.

For example, they may charge 50 for 100 clicks. This means that for 50, the vendor will send an ad to his or her email list and ensure that your link in the email is clicked at least 100 times.

Most vendors will deliver a few extra clicks or what is known as over delivery OD, so you ll effectively be playing slightly less than 0.50 a click.

If you intend to buy solo ads, make sure you have a click tracking script so that you can track the number of clicks you re receiving as well as the number of subscriber optins you re getting.

This way, you ll know if the solo ad vendor s clicks are converting well for you and can test your ROI.

Blog Commenting

This method may be old school, but it still works very effectively.

The idea here is to visit blogs of people writing about your niche topic and leave a comment with your URL. Don t just blatantly write this post is great. Write a constructive comment to show that you read the blog post and you know your stuff.

Build rapport not only with the author but also the other readers that the blog gets.

When they see that what you re writing makes a lot of sense, then you ll not only get their respect but you could also very well get a visit from them on your website.

Wall Jacking

This method works very similarly to blog commenting.

You re using Facebook as your fan page and leaving comments on posts from fan pages related to yours. Like what I wrote above, you have to build rapport and write something constructive.

However, Facebook posts are more likely to go viral.

Hence, just one comment from you could go a long way. Now besides leaving comments on posts, you could also like other people s comments, especially if you think that they will be interested in your fan page.

When you like another person s comment, there s a chance that he or she may click through to see what your fan page is about. When that happens, you could very well get the person s like on your fan page. This is a really effective way to growing your fan base steadily.

I hope this post has been eye-opening for you. Go out there and take action.

Pick one of these methods mentioned here and start driving traffic to your website or fan page. I look forward to hearing your success stories.

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Microstepper Driver

Apr 17, 2014  Hi, A small video showing my step motor controller. Based on L297 L298N. Here is a link to download the PCB DipTrace : https://drive.google.com/file/d.

microstepper driver

KSTEP is a KFLOP expansion board designed specifically for plug-and-play stepper motor control. With only a motor

power supply, stepper motors and the KFLOP KSTEP you have all you need to start controlling 4 motors or 8 with 2 KSTEPs.

This ease-of-use also comes with high performance, high efficiency, and additional 12-24V isolated I/O expansion sufficent

for most applications. Although it is possible to use third-party stepper or servo drives with our KFLOP

controller, KSTEP provides complete connectivity with a single ribbon cable connection,

easily mounts to KFLOP with standoffs, and gets the most out of our software. In addition, KSTEP s ultra low resistance MOSFETS

eliminates the need for special cooling and heat sinking. This setup reduces cabling and wiring and puts everything you

need into a nice footprint. KSTEP really is a culmination of many customer requirements in one expansion board.

199 USD Plus Tax, S H

In Stock

Usually ships within 1 to 2 business days.

Myths and Realities

The lure of Microstepping a two-phase stepper motor is compelling. Visions of Microstepping a 1.8-degree hybrid stepper motor with 256 microsteps per full step flash in your mind. The resolution of 51,200 microsteps per revolution entices you. You re glad you don t own stock in high-resolution encoder companies.

Where s the catch.      

The real compromise is that as you increase the number of microsteps per full step the INCREMENTAL torque per microstep drops off drastically. Resolution increases but accuracy will actually suffer.

Few, if any, stepper motors have a pure sinusoidal torque vs. shaft position and all have higher order harmonics that in fact distort the curve and affect accuracy. And while microstepping drives have come a long way too, they still only approximate a true sine wave.

Significant too is that any load torque will result in a magnetic backlash, displacing the rotor from the intended position until sufficient torque is generated.

The actual expression for incremental torque for a single microstep is:

1. TINC THFS x sin 90/µPFS

The incremental torque for N microsteps is:

2. TN THFS x sin 90 x N /µPFS

Where:

 

SYMBOLS and UNITS

Symbol

Definition

Unit s

µPFS

Number of Microsteps per Full Step

Integer

N

Number of Microsteps taken

N Less than or equal to µPFS

THFS

Holding Torque - Full Step

oz-in

TINC

Incremental Torque per Microstep

TN

Incremental Torque for N Microsteps

Table 1 dramatically quantifies the significant impact of the incremental torque per microstep as a function of the number of microsteps per full step.

A full step is considered 1 microstep per full step for Equations 1 and 2. A half step is 2 microsteps per full step.

Microsteps/full step

Holding Torque/Microstep

1

100.00

2

70.71

4

38.27

8

19.51

16

9.80

32

4.91

64

2.45

128

1.23

256

0.61

As the Number of Microsteps per Full Step Increase

Table 1

Incremental Torque per Microstep Full Step

The consequence is that if the load torque plus the motor s friction and detent torque is greater than the incremental torque of a microstep successive microsteps will have to be realized until the accumulated torque exceeds the load torque plus the motor s friction and detent torque.

Simply stated, taking a microstep does not mean the motor will actually move.  And if reversing direction is desired a whopping number of microsteps may be needed before movement occurs.  That s because the motor shaft torque must be decremented from whatever positive value it has to a negative value that will have sufficient torque to cause motion in the negative direction.

Accuracy vs. Resolution

What if the motor is not loaded. you ask.  Thinking of using microstepping for some type of pointing or inertial positioning.

Well, the stepper motor still has friction torque due to its bearings and it has a detent torque, in addition to other harmonic distortions.  You ll have to wind up enough incremental torque to overcome the bearing friction.  Even more disruptive than the bearing friction is the detent torque, which is typically 5 to 20 of the holding torque.  Sometimes the detent torque is adding to the overall torque generation, sometimes it is subtracting from the powered torque generation.  In any case it wrecks havoc with your overall accuracy.

Indeed, some manufacturers fabricate microstepping versions of their motors.  Their efforts typically are to reduce the detent torque, usually at the expense of holding torque, to make the torque vs. rotor position closer to a sine wave, and to improve linearity of torque vs. current.  These efforts reduce, but do not eliminate the compromises associated with microstepping in regards to accuracy.

How about using a lookup table to correct for the inaccuracies in the motor and microstepping drive.  That too has been utilized.  The problem is that if the load torque changes from when the lookup table was made the results can be worse than if you had not utilized a calibrated table at all.

Why Microstep Then.

There are still compelling reasons other than high resolution for microstepping.  They include:

Reduced Mechanical Noise.

Gentler Actuation Mechanically

Reduces Resonances Problems

In summary, although Microstepping gives the designer more resolution, improved accuracy is not realized.  Reduction in mechanical and electromagnetically induced noise is, however, a real benefit.  The mechanical transmission of torque will also be much gentler as will a reduction in resonance problems.  This gives better confidence in maintaining synchronization of the open loop system and less wear and tear on the mechanical transmission system.

In fact, taking an infinite number of microsteps per full step results in two-phase synchronous permanent magnet ac motor operation, with speed a function of the frequency of the ac power supply.  The rotor will lag behind the rotating magnetic field until sufficient torque is generated to accommodate the load.

Oct 17, 2013  See Connecting Easy Driver to a L298N bipolar stepper driver board to boost.

EAS Microstep is our single axis microstepping chopper driver board for stepper motors. It is based on the National Semiconductor LMD18245 3amp 55volt full bridge.

In dual phase mode, also known as two-phase on, full step excitation, the motor is operated with both phases energized at the same time.

KSTEP 4-Axis Microstepper Amplifier for KFLOP KSTEP is a KFLOP expansion board designed specifically for plug-and-play stepper motor control. With only a motor power.

Dynomotion Motion Control Boards for CNC Manufacturing and Robotics Applications

Flash Drive Usb 2.0 Driver Download

The personalized flash drive is a customized USB drive for business promotional gifts. The USB drive is available in custom logo printed upon your design.

flash drive usb 2.0 driver download

Don t feel like reinstalling an antivirus program every time you boot up your Ubuntu flash drive. We ll show you how to create a bootable Ubuntu flash drive that.

DriverGuide Forums

USB Flash Drive 2.0

The USB version 2.0 interface fitted in USB 2.0 1.3M UVC Webcam enables users to use the gadget with night vision LED lights auto white balance and exposure devices.

Trek Technology and IBM began selling the first USB flash drives commercially in 2000. Trek Technology sold a model under the brand name ThumbDrive, and IBM.

Step 2 download YUMI – Multiboot USB Creator. Download: YUMI – Multiboot USB Creator. This is an easy way of making a Bootalble USB FlashDrive for Hirens Boot Disk.

Unless you update your drivers regularly you may face hardware performance issues. To check your drivers you should either:

A. Manually verify every device on your system for driver updates

B. Automatically scan all your device drivers using DriverScanner

RECOMMENDED:We recommend you download DriverScanner. This tool will allow you to run a free scan listing all the outdated drivers on your system.

flash drive usb 2.0 driver download

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My DG

 

12-20-2006

Junior Member

Join Date: Dec 2006

Posts: 1

DRIVER NEEDED: SanDisk Cruzer Micro Flash Drive U3 Windows 98 USB

Does anyone know where I can locate a driver that will allow my SanDisk Cruzer Micro USB Flash Drive w/ U3 to run on Windows 98SE. I ve heard there is a generic driver that will allow its use. ANY help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks.

Support Information:

Device Type: Removable drive

Manufacturer: SanDisk

Model: Cruzer Micro Flash Drive U3

Interface: USB

Operating System: Windows 98

Age of Device:

FCCID:

Find it on DriverGuide Find it with Google Research manufacturer SanDisk

12-27-2006

Re: DRIVER NEEDED: SanDisk Cruzer Micro Flash Drive U3 Windows 98 USB

I used the link you posted, Jerry K, but it sent me to a screen saying modify, repair, or remove. i went to repair and it didn t work

i already installed the driveer from sandisks sitebut when i turn on my computer, it says i need a driver and tells me to find it or let windowslook for itneither action seems to work. my comp is old, from 2001 so probably usb 1.1. cruzer is 2.0. but i had another mini cruzer 512mb that worked fine, and it was 2.0

here s the driver site, it unzips a bunch of files and an ini file, but windows tells me to find an inf file for it to work

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I picked up two 2.0 GB Cruzer Micros at Best Buy yesterday for 40 each. I ve been struggling half the day to get them to play nice with Windows 98 SE. I thought I might be out of luck, they are these new smart drives - U3 or something. Google led me here and also to a post on everthingusb.com - this thread:

3911

I followed the instructions there and was finally able to see the files on the stick. Explicitly IGot rid of all the mucking around I had done by removing the Cruzer from the computer; deleting any leftover references under My Computer/Properties/Devices; Uninstalling the software under Add/Remove Software. Re-booted.Re-installed the SanDisk Windows 98SE driver that I got from their website. Re-booted.Plugged in the Cruzer.Chose Display a list of all the drivers in a specific location, so you can select the driver you want.Chose Hard disk controllers.Chose SanDisk from the list of manufacturersChose Cruzer Micro USB-Flash-Drive from the device list.Clicked Yes at the warning that I had picked the wrong driver.

When I went to My Computer, I could see the drive, browse, and transfer files.

I hope this helps, I was already looking up the prices of other USB drives and planning a trip to return the two I got on sale.

Malcolm

12-28-2006

Super Moderator

Join Date: Sep 2003

Posts: 37,068

Quote:

Originally Posted by Just Google led me here and also to a post on everthingusb.com - this thread:

URL 3911

3911 /url

The link posted on that web page for the driver is invalid: eg:

So where did you get the correct driver.

12-29-2006

www.sandisk.com choose Downloads from the top menu to get to a driver download page.

I used the one labeled Cruzer Micro non-U3 devices even though my drives are U3 because it was closest to what I have. That link took me to:

with the link to:

which is the driver I used.

Sorry. I had downloaded the driver earlier as I thought had the OP. Finding it was not a problem, the problem seems to be getting Windows 98SE to use it with the newer drives.

PS. This is obviously a little bit of a hack. It s clear SanDisk doesn t want you to use their new U3 drives with Windows 98 or at least they don t want to support that use in any way. I expect it to keep working for me, my Windows 98 system isn t going to change much, but I don t know that it will keep working as the drives keep changing.

JustParking,

Thank You. I bought a U3 Cruzer Micro a while ago and haven t been able to use it on my old Windows 98 laptop, but now I can thanks to your helpful instructions. I don t even have Win98SE, just Win98, and it still worked.

Thanks again.

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I am replying from the information i read from just parking. I did exactly what you said for making the u3 cruzer work for 98se. It worked. I have one question about when you select the driver to use it says this driver may cause problems with the hard drive device. When choosing/using the driver will it cause any damage to my U3 cruzer.

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Here s a photo of what i did.  The left hand plug is the uncut end that plugs into my TV and the right one plugs into the WDTV. It shows the cut plug and the left over bit.  I used a box cutter or what we call in oz a stanley or craft knife. It was thick plastic but pretty soft. Plug still feels solid in the sheath and doesn t wobble so i reckon it ll save me the hassle of going into town to buy a new one.

This issue is caused by the fact that the WDTV does not meet the mechanical specification for HDMI.  The specification requires no greater than 2mm between the bezel and the connector, but the WDTV has 3mm.  I strongly suggest that WDTV fix this issue or they may face losing their HDMI certification.

351.msg12436 msg12436

It works.. CUT 2 ml of the plastic NOT THE CONECTOR and the conector itself becomes larger, therefore plugin deeper into the WD and it works, i used a craft knife, the one to cut boxes about a 1- 3 depending on brand. im using a 10 dollar hdmi 1.3 cable made in china lol. what a crazy and jet efective solution to this uncomon problem. Wd should be ashamed about this issue. Cutting the plastic is very easy by the way but only 2milimeter, cut any longer and you will loose the conector..

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Intel R 82810-DC100 Graphics Controller Driver

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Compaq Presario F700 F750us Driver

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Compaq Ethernet Lan Card Driver

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USB Compact Flash and Microdrive Reader TPP Driver

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Intel R 946GZ Express Chipset Family Driver

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presario v3000 Driver

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All Compaq monitor models Driver

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EVO D510 CMT Driver

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Synaptics PS/2 TouchPad Driver

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Realtek RTL8169/8110 Family Gigabit Ethernet NIC Driver

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Intel R 82801GB/GR ICH7 Family LPC Interface Controller - 27B8 Driver

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v2405US Driver

sp30399.exe1.0 MB8,332

Creative Sound Blaster AudioPCI 64V Driver

1373UP.exe1.5 MB10,914

HP d530 SFF Driver

Chipset.rar2.5 MB1,997

Compaq Presario 7478 Onboard VGA Driver

SP15767.exe16.6 MB4,562

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You-pax Driver Download

191st Assault Helicopter Company Guestbook Archive. Messages between 8 May 2001 and 20 Jun 2006. Thank you for visiting our pages Click here to add an entry.

Besides the drivers, what other creative software do you use. the console launcher. i hope x-fi mode changer works in Win7 as well.

Sep 9, 2015 - This software/driver pack is unofficial, not supported by Creative Labs. Use it at your. I ll release an updated Installation Disc, before you ask.

Why we need to delete GPT protective partition.

In Windows XP Professional, you cannot access or modify GPT disk, but you can convert a GPT disk to MBR by using the clean command in DiskPart, which will delete GPT protective partition and remove all data and partition structures from the disk.

Warning: The steps below will erase all data on the GPT disk, please backup your data first.

You might see HD Drive in GPT status on Disk Management.

Go to DOS command line click on Start Menu, then Run, type in cmd in textbox, and hit OK

Type in DiskPart in command line.

Type in list disk in command line to show all disks in this machine.

Use select to set the focus to the specified partition.

For example select disk 1.

Use clean command to remove GPT disk from the current in-focus disk by zeroing sectors.

Go back to Disk Management, you can see GPT disk is Not Initialized now. 

Within Disk Management, right click on disk info, choose Initialize Disk, You can see GPT disk is Unallocated now.

Right click on disk info, choose New Partition, follow Partition Wizard and format it. Now you are able to use the disk in Windows XP.

PAX MASTER PCI XFI Driver Suite 2014V 1.15 ALL OS Stable Drivers back member at hardwareheaven I couldn t done with you people.How I removed crackling, buzzing and broken audio 2 posts21 Jan 2015PAX PCI Audigy All-OS-Driver V2.103 posts25 Aug 2014PAX PCI XFI ALL OS Driver V4.60 Released. EAX Fully 3 posts23 Jul 2011PAX MASTER Suite V2.05 link fix6 posts17 Jul 2011More results from forums.creative.comAlternative Creative Sound Card Drivers - PAX Drivers forums.overclockers.com.au Specific Hardware Topics PC AudioSimilarJul 17, 2012 - 15 posts - 11 authorsPAX related logos and software and drivers are own by PAX - Please don t remod my work with out permission you can contact me at.

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How to delete GPT Protective Partition

Why we need to delete GPT protective partition. In Windows XP Professional, you cannot access or modify GPT disk, but you can convert a GPT disk to MBR by using.

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Symantec Norton Antivirus 2006 Source Code

Daniel Schulman Chairman Michael Brown President and CEO Products: The Norton Antivirus suite, Enterprise Vault, the Veritas suite, and other products.

Dec 16, 2010  A recent support email between customer and our developer shows that Norton/Symantec antivirus may affect Visual Studio s performance in win7 due to.

Jan 26, 2012  Security vendor Symantec has advised users of its pcAnywhere remote control software to disable it, because hackers with access to the product s source code.

March 9, 2012 PST Symantec can confirm that the source code for 2006 versions of Norton Antivirus posted by Anonymous is authentic. The exposure of this code.

Norton AntiVirus, developed and distributed by Symantec Corporation, was providing malware prevention and removal during a subscription period.

Hackers associated with the Anonymous hacktivist collective published the source code filesfor Symantec s Norton Utilities 2006 product on The Pirate Bay BitTorrent website on Monday, but according to the security vendor the same files had been released in January.

The Pirate Bay torrent was accompanied by a message in which the hackers referred to Symantec as the worst security vendor on planet Earth and hinted that the release is not the result of a new security breach. As many of you know this was planned back before Sabu was arrested, the hackers said.

Sabu, the founder of Anonymous-affiliated hacker group LulzSec, was arrested in June 2011 and subsequently worked as an informant for the FBI. However, the public didn t learn about his arrest and FBI involvement until March 2012.

Symantec is aware of the claims made online that a group has posted the source code for Norton Utilities 2006, Cris Paden, manager of corporate communications at Symantec, said Tuesday via email. We have analyzed the code that was posted and have concluded that it is the same code that was already posted by another group in January 2012.

At the beginning of January, a group of hackers called Lords of Dharmaraja, also affiliated with Anonymous, claimed to have stolen the source code for multiple Symantec products and tried to extort money from the company.

A few days later, the group released the source code for the 2006 version of Norton Utilities with the intention of helping a Washington state man s lawsuit against Symantec. The man had filed a complaint claiming that the trial versions of Norton Utilities and several other Symantec products display misleading information about the health of their users computers in order to scare them into buying the full version of the products.

Norton Utilities is a product that includes different Windows system optimization and maintenance tools like registry defragmenter, registry cleaner, disk defragmenter, disk cleaner, file recovery, services manager and others.

As we stated at that time, the 2006 version of Norton Utilities is no longer sold or supported, Paden said. The current version of Norton Utilities has been completely rebuilt and shares no common code with Norton Utilities 2006.

Furthermore, the code s leak poses no security threat to users of the latest version of Norton Utilities or other Symantec products, Paden said.

Symantec: Leaked Norton Utilities 2006 source code already published months ago symantec norton antivirus 2006 source code

Symantec named a Top 100 Global Innovator by Thomson Reuters for 5th consecutive year.

The White Patch On My Tooth

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Hi, i have a dry patch on the top of my lip. it started off about 2 months ago as a small discolored dot, then progressed into a darker patch bigger patch 1cm wide.

COMPONENTS. The patch consists of several modules: Main Data The patch itself. Townmap Fixes Numerous townmap fixes in the original quality. This will be redundant.

Just straight knitting, no shaping, no strange abbreviations and easy to follow instructions with lots of pictures to guide you. This is what you ll find in the FREE PATTERN for Tiny Topsy, the doll that I promised to design for new knitters. She s just the right size for a doll house and little girls will love her so I hope you ll be tempted to give her a go. Before I give you the pattern details I thought you d like to see Tiny Topsy at home.

Tiny Topsy lives in a tiny house with lots of other dolls, but Topsy is special. The little girl who owns the house knows that when a wobbly tooth falls out she must leave it on Topsy s tiny table.

When the little girl is fast asleep Tiny Topsy works her magic and becomes a tiny tooth fairy. Her little pearl button brooch turns into a pretty pearl necklace and her knitted apron becomes lace. She has pink ribbons in her hair and a golden crown. But best of all, her fluffy duster changes into a magic wand.

The fairy waves her wand and the little girl s tooth magically becomes a shiny silver coin.

In the morning when the little girl wakes up she remembers the tooth and runs to Tiny Topsy s table. The tooth has gone and in it s place she finds the silver coin.

Tiny Topsy smiles because only she knows the secret of the tooth fairy s magic.

If you know a little girl who d love to own a Tiny Topsy tooth fairy why knit one for her. She s an upside down topsy turvy doll and very easy to make.

I have produced a PDF pattern which you can download onto your computer and print out. You might find downloading the pattern takes a few seconds.

Click for TINY TOPSY - FREE PATTERN - Have fun and happy knitting.

The little video links below should prove useful for people who are very new to the craft.

1. How to CAST ON - easy method for beginners

2. How to KNIT

3. How to PURL

4. How to knit STOCKING STITCH also known as STOCKINETTE STITCH - this is simply one row of knit stitches alternated with one row of purl stitches easy.

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Hi, I ve recently read about tooth soap and made my own from a recipe on the internet I had been buying a herbal tooth paste that my biological dentist developed.

Color palette for the decorative painter. September 10, 2015 By Pierre Finkelstein Leave a Comment. Here is the color palette for the decorative painter that we use.

Andrew has a loose tooth, but no matter what he does he can t seem to get it out. Read the hilarious story Andrew s Loose Tooth by Robert Munsch to find out what.

Spotty teeth are not attractive

What causes white spots on teeth.

Are these white spots, marks, stains, patches, blotches, flecks, deposits, or dots on teeth a cosmetic or health issue.

On a popular online health forum, one anxious lady writes:

I have two white stains on one of my front teeth and one on the other front tooth. What can I do to get rid of them. They seem to get worse, or brighter, when I brush. Any advice. Please, nothing outrageous.

It s not surprising this woman is concerned. If she s like most women, she smiles about 62 times a day far

more than the average man who musters a meager 8 smiles a day.

So,

naturally, she s probably quite conscious about what people see when she

smiles.

White spots, especially on front teeth, are quite

common.

You may know someone who has them, or you may even have them on

your own teeth.

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What do white spots on teeth mean, and is it serious.

White

spots on teeth are ordinarily a loss of mineral content on the surface of the

teeth the enamel.  

Dentists refer to this loss as hypocalcification,

and they call the white spots that result from this loss hypoplasia.

Besides

being a cosmetic concern for many people, this problem can actually

result in the deterioration of teeth.

In fact, your dentist may tell you

that the first evidence of tooth decay is a white spot lesion

meaning your tooth s enamel will have an opaque color in the spot where

the cavity is starting to form.

Why do I have white spots on my teeth.

Since

there are several different causes for these white spots., It s best to have

your dentist examine your teeth when you first notice them appearing so

he or she can try to determine why you are developing them. Here are

some of the major causes of white spots on teeth:

Dry mouth. If you have a dry mouth and not enough saliva to keep your

mouth s pH level near neutral, acid-producing bacteria will thrive and

attack your teeth.

Certain prescription drugs, medical conditions,

tobacco usage, and breathing through your mouth when sleeping can cause dry mouth.

Drink plenty of water

to stay hydrated, suck on xylitol mints, or use a mouth rinse specially formulated for dry mouth.

Biotene Dry Mouth Rinse

Acidic foods and

drinks. White spots can be caused by consuming too much acidic food or

drink. For instance, if you drink a lot of sports drinks, vitamin water,

carbonated soda, lemonade, or apple cider vinegar, their high acidic

content can rapidly eat away at your teeth s enamel and natural

minerals. Eating sour candies and foods made with lemon or vinegar can

also cause these spots as well.Acid reflux. If you suffer

from acid reflux GERD, your mouth will experience higher levels of

acidity than normal. This high acidity can damage your teeth, resulting

in white spots.

Oral B Electric Toothbrushes Clean Teeth and Plaque

Plaque buildup from poor oral hygiene.

Plaque is a sticky, colorless film of bacteria and debris that forms

on your teeth after eating carbohydrates sugars and starches.

The bacteria feeds on sugars in your mouth and produces acidic waste

that dissolves your enamel, causes

white decalcification, and cavities.

We ve been using Oral B electric toothbrushes at my home for years and they do a great job of removing plaque and keeping teeth fresh and clean.

Celiac disease.  Celiac disease

is an autoimmune disease affecting up to 4 of the population. Celiac disease may cause white

spots on teeth. Dr. Vickki Petersen writes, According to a reference book, up

to 89 of people with celiac disease exhibit enamel problems.   Besides

causing the spots, celiac disease can also lead to undersized teeth,

yellowing teeth, and teeth with groves or pitting on permanent teeth.Excessive fluoride fluorosis. Consuming excessive fluoride, especially during your teeth s development, can cause  teeth to

develop white spots. For instance, if you live in an area where drinking

water contains a high fluoride level. Whitening strips. It s been

reported that even some brands of whitening strips can cause white

spots, especially if they are left on for several months. They are

highly acidic and over time can de-mineralize the tooth s enamel.Genetic disorders. In some cases, the white spots on your teeth may be caused by genetic disorders.

Wearing braces. Braces won t cause white spots on teeth,

but poor dental hygiene while wearing them can.

Plaque

builds up on hard to reach places because braces make it hard to brush your teeth well.

When the braces are removed, these places could have white spots as well as tooth decay.

While I wear braces, no matter how well I brush and floss, when I finish my routine with the Waterpik, more food and debris always falls out - Yuk.

A Waterpik is the only way to reach the hidden corners and clean them right.

Waterpik Helps Strengthen Gums, Clean Hard to Reach Places, such as Around Braces

My toddler has white spots on her baby teeth. She doesn t consume anything acidic or wear braces. So what s happening here.

Very

young children often can have white spots on teeth,

but for other reasons. They re commonly referred to as toddler tooth

discoloration and can be caused by illness, medications, exposure to

certain minerals, ingesting too much fluoride, tooth decay, poor oral

hygiene, and from eating certain foods. Visiting a dentist can tell you for sure.

Can I use an at-home tooth whitening system to remove the white spots from my teeth.

Many

people attempt a do-it-yourself solution at home by using one of

several tooth whitening systems. But this can be a mistake.

What usually

happens is that the whitening product will not only whiten your teeth,

but the white spot as well. And that will only make them

more noticeable.

Your best bet is to see your dentist as soon as

you can. In the meantime, consume less acidic food and drink

and take care of your oral hygiene.

What can my dentist do to remove the white spots on my teeth.

What

your dentist can do depends on a number of factors, such as the size of

the white spots, their cause, the

deterioration of your enamel, or the overall number of white spots on teeth.

It s better to visit a dentist when you first see signs of white spots and avoid more problems down the line.

If your situation is one that s

easily corrected, one of the most common treatments is called

micro-abrasion.

Your dentist performs micro-abrasion by using a course

diamond bevel to mechanically remove the spot before applying resin over

the treated area.

In some cases, your dentist may have to follow this

treatment with bleaching to improve the results.

On the other

hand, if your white spots are large or if you have many white spots,

micro-abrasion may not be the best option.

In that case, your dentist

may refer you to a cosmetic dentist, who will either recommend capping

the teeth, using a white filling, or applying a porcelain veneer.

Manhattan

Cosmetic Dentist Dr. Michael Gulizio states that he uses a fairly new

treatment in his practice involving micro air-abrasion or etchant on the

tooth surface followed by a daily application of amorphous calcium

phosphate every day for two weeks.

This treatment may result in either

complete elimination of the white spots or only minor improvement. If

the latter is the case, then he repeats the same treatment. He contends

that by the end of the second treatment, the white spots should

disappear.

If the white spots indicate you have a mineral

deficiency or breakdown of your tooth s enamel, your dentist may

recommend a fluoride topical rinse, which may heal any soft white spots. This is different from the effects of fluoride that is consumed.

Your

dentist or orthodontist can also recommend specially

formulated tooth pastes or gels that help re-mineralize tooth enamel.

How to get rid of white spots on teeth and prevent them.

Brushing and flossing at least twice daily, especially after consuming

sugary foods and beverages, and seeing your dentist every six months

for a check-up and cleaning;Getting sufficient calcium in your diet;Using a fluoride rinse;Avoiding sugary and acidic foods and beverages;Practicing exceptional oral hygiene if you re wearing braces.

Sonicare Electric Toothbrushes Clean Teeth and Plaque

Also, consider using an Oral B or Sonicare electric toothbrush.

They work much better at reducing plaque than a manual

toothbrush.

Your dentist or orthodontist may also recommend a WaterPik to help remove debris from the hidden crevices behind the braces and massage your gums.

At my home we use an electric toothbrush and a Waterpik. We ve had excellent dental check ups for years.

Should you have a white spot on your tooth, get a dental check-up as soon as you can.

What if I don t do anything to remove the white spots. What can happen.

If

your white spots aren t serious and are more of a cosmetic issue, your

dentist may want to keep an eye on them during your regular visits.

If,

on the other hand, they re serious enough that the tooth enamel is

highly susceptible to a cavity or might begin to break, you may need a

crown. Or, if it s merely a small area that s decayed, a small white

filling should do the trick. 

If the white spots are on your

front teeth with no evident decay, then there s the

micro-abrasion/bleaching process. Of course, if your front tooth or

teeth are more severely affected, you may require a white filling or a

porcelain veneer.

In some cases, white spots are merely a

cosmetic nuisance that mar our smiles and make us self-conscious. But in

many instances they can also be a sign of something more serious. If

you notice a white spot on your tooth, it s best to see your dentist as

soon as you can.

Other Helpful Articles:

How to Find a Dentist

Teeth Whitening Products

Laser Teeth Whitening Basics

Home White Spots on Teeth.

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Download Messenger Reviver 2

Dec 17, 2014

Windows Live Messenger 2008, 2009, 2011 and Windows Messenger users

If you have previously revived Windows Live Messenger 2008, 2009 or 2011, you will need to do so again using the latest version of Messenger Reviver 2 to continue to sign in.

E-mail message count and notifications broken

As of April 15, 2014, it seems the e-mail message count and mail notifications have been broken globally.  This is a server problem and cannot be fixed by Reviver.  It is unknown at this time if the problem will be fixed.  For more information, see the E-mail message count and notifications broken post.

How to use Messenger on Windows 8.1

The out-of-box installation of Windows 8.1 breaks both Windows Live Messenger 2011 and 2012 by modifying how the encryption component of Windows works.  If you see this problem, you will receive a 80090004 error when you sign in.  This issue was fixed in Windows Update KB2903939, which will need to be installed to use Messenger 2011/2012 on Windows 8.1.

Messenger Reviver 2 automatically installs, repairs and/or modifies Windows Live Messenger 2012, 2011, 2009, and 2008 as well as Windows Messenger to continue signing in despite being blocked by Microsoft.

Reviver 2 supports modifying all language versions and can automatically install either 2009 or 2011/2012 versions in 47 different languages.

You will receive one of the following messages if you re being forced to upgrade to Skype:

A newer version is available.  You must install the newer version in order to continue.  Would you like to do this now.

A newer version has been downloaded and is available.  You must install this newer version in order to continue.  Would you like to do this now.

To bypass the forced upgrade, download my Messenger Reviver 2 utility and run the application.  As this requires changes to Messenger you may receive a message asking you to allow Reviver to make changes to your computer.

Reviver will automatically attempt to detect if Messenger is still installed, which versions are eligible for modification and if you need to run a repair or new installation to bring Messenger back if Skype has removed it.

Also available: Messenger Reviver 2 zipped if you are experiencing problems with running Reviver.

Requirements

Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10 Technical Preview

On Windows XP, you will also need the. NET Framework 2.0 except SP2, . NET Framework 3.5 or 4.0.

To revive Messenger, click Start and the process will automatically modify Messenger and restart it.

If Windows Live Essentials is not installed, you will presented with options to either install Messenger 2009 or 2012 in the language of your choosing.  Reviver will attempt to guess which language you prefer based on your prior Windows and Essentials language settings.

Additionally if Essentials is still installed, but Skype has removed it, you will be offered to repair your Essentials installation.

Advanced

If you wish to do a manual re-install or repair, you can select these options by clicking the Advanced button and choosing the function you would like.

If you are attempting to revive Windows Messenger on Windows XP and do not have Windows Live Messenger already installed, use the Patch Messenger option in this menu to revive it without further Live Essentials installation.

Easter Eggs

As Messenger Reviver 2 will probably be my last exclusive Messenger project, I have added a few small Easter eggs into the application for fun.

Animated MSN butterfly

When you open Reviver, you ll find an animated MSN butterfly in the main window.  This is the original butterfly that flew around from MSN Messenger 5.0.  Based on highly advanced software engineering, the butterfly will fly around, flaps its wings or just sit quietly.  If you click the butterfly when it s not busy, it will react accordingly.

Messenger spinner

If you click the About button, you ll find the original Messenger signing in spinning animation in the top-left hand corner.

The MSN sound

Back in 1996, MSN had a sound they used for their advertising which accompanied the various letters of M-S-N.  I was fairly fond of it, and I ve included it in Reviver.  Single-click the above mentioned spinner to initiate the sound and watch the letters light up.

There s one more small addition, but I ll let you find that one yourself :

If you need help

Please leave a comment here, visit the forum, the live chat, or contact me directly.

Using Windows 8.1.  For the time being, you will need to make sure your Windows installation is up-to-date and that KB2903939 is installed.  See the top notice.

Version history

Dec 20 2014

2.4.0.0

Patches Windows Live Messenger 2011 to use the correct Messenger servers

Patches Windows Messenger all versions to use the correct Messenger servers

New support for Windows Messenger 4.7.3000 Windows XP SP2 and Windows Messenger 5.1.0715

Bug when detecting if Live Messenger 2008 has been re-revived fixed

Automatically enables TLS support as now required for Messenger if it has been turned off

Dec 5 2014

2.3.5.0

Patches Windows Live Messenger 2008 and Windows Live Messenger 2009 to force them to use the correct Messenger servers

Fixed a bug when upgrading to Messenger 2012 on Windows Server when the. NET Framework 3.x isn t installed

Nov 13 2014

2.3.0.0

Fixes both Windows Live Messenger 2008 and Windows Live Messenger 2009 solves error code 85ae0010 sign in issue

Apr 16 2014

2.2.5.0

Support for new Messenger 2012 16.4.3528.0331

Feb 19 2014

2.2.4.0

Support for new Messenger 2012 16.4.3522.0110

Sept 09 2013

2.2.3.0

Messenger 2011/2012 has been blocked from being installed on Windows 8.1 due to a compatibility problem with Windows 8.1 I ve yet been able to fix.

This version has been withdrawn as Microsoft has fixed the error in update KB2903939

May 13 2013

2.2.2.0

Support for new Messenger 2012 16.4.3508.0205

May 07 2013

2.2.1.0

Changes to the detection of Messenger to allow weird modified Program

Files folder configurations on 64-bit Windows

Fixed a rare crash that would happen on new Messenger installs on XP

May 04 2013

2.2.0.0

Now scans all running applications for Messenger file in use

Also supports patching the file and rebooting for the change to take effect

Added some code to avoid broken Windows Installers

Apr 25 2013

2.1.0.0

Added support for Windows Live Messenger 2008 8.5.1302.1018

More aggressive in shutting down services that might hold on to the file, hopefully should resolve some of the waiting issues

2.0.1.0

Changed how XP clients work as Reviver was trying to patch Windows Messenger and required advanced settings to install Live Messenger again, it should now be automatic on XP

Apr 24 2013

2.0.0.1

Switching the self-extractor to Microsoft s iexpress to solve some issues, this should prevent the application from not exiting when it s done its work and hopefully better with security software

Apr 23 2013

2.0.0.0

First release of Messenger Reviver 2

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Praise be to God. Changelog 1.43 build 24 New: Added compatibility for Windows Live Messenger 2012 version 16.4.3522.0110 Changelog 1.43 build 23.

Scarica Windows Live Messenger 2009 in Italiano in sicurezza e libertà. Tanti consigli e un prezioso regalo per te.

Microsoft is expected to deliver its first technical preview release of Windows codenamed Threshold tomorrowish. And while the usual outlets will be covering the big changes, I wanted to document a relatively smaller set of welcome changes to the Command Prompt and the underlying Console Host.

Here s the new experimental tab in Threshold s Command Prompt properties window. This tab exposes switches that turn on and off new experimental features that apply to all console windows -- including the one that hosts PowerShell.

Let s go over them.

Enable line wrapping selection

In previous versions of the Command Prompt, selecting text for copy involved crudely painting a selection box on the screen and hitting the Enter key. But you weren t done. You also had to paste that text into a text editor to correct the abrupt line endings. It was a terribly slow and error-prone process.

But that s all in the past now.

In Threshold, you can now select and copy text as you would expect to in any text editor.

Filter clipboard contents on paste

Ever pasted in a command only to realize after it errored out it was peppered with tabs and fancy quotation marks. I have. And I won t ever again, thanks to a new paste filter in Threshold.

Now when pasting text, fancy quotation marks are converted into their straighter equivalents and stray tabs are removed.

Wrap text output on resize

Resizing the Command Prompt window has always been an alien task. If you somehow managed to get the window to shrink, a horizontal scrollbar would appear and text would remain static and not reflow or wrap given the new constraints.

With this feature enabled, however, the window and its text behave the way you expect.

Enable new Ctrl key shortcuts

Some handy new keyboard shortcuts have found their way into the new Command Prompt as well. I say some because I can t be sure I covered them all. We ll have to wait for the official documentation to come online.

CTRL A - Select all

CTRL C - Copy

CTRL F - Find

CTRL M - Mark

CTRL V - Paste

CTRL / - Scroll line up/down

CTRL PgUp/PgDn - Scroll page up/down

Extended edit keys

There s not a lot of information available on extended edit keys. This feature has existed in Windows for quite some time but has never really been exposed to users until Threshold.

We ll have to wait for the official word on this feature.

Trim leading zeros on selection

If you find yourself working with a lot of numerical data in the Command Prompt, you may want to turn this on.

When selecting a number with leading zeros e.g. via double-click, the selection box will begin after any insignificant zeros present. For example, 000001234 becomes 1234. Hexadecimal and decimal prefaced numbers, however, override this rule. That is, 0x1234 and 0n1234 remain selectable in their entirety.

Opacity

This one is an oddball.

This slider ranges from a ghostly 30 all the way up to 100 default. But it affects all console windows on your system and the entire host window, not just the background. That color is still tweakable via the Properties window, mind you.

As translucency increases, text readability decreases, so it s not immediately clear who would ever use this. But it s a neat technical demo and nods at the Windows enthusiast crowd that has undoubtly been asking for this for years.

MSN Messenger WLM Polygamy allow you use multiple copies of MSN Messenger at the same time. Supports all versions of MSN Messenger including versions 7.x, 8.x.

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wlm patch wlm patch Use Messenger Reviver 2 to bring back Messenger and beat Skype

Home of Messenger Plus., the Windows Live Messenger Extension.

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Andro Patch

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Andropatch (discontinued in the UK - November 2010)

Andro Gel Vs Andro Patch

Hey all, Just wanted to see if anything had some info on the Andropatch. As of now I am using Androgel, but due to the fact that is kind of a pain in the butt to use / some of the donts that come along with it I am getting changed over to the Patch on Monday once it gets delivered to my pharmacy.

I also talked to my Endo about upping my amount. I was doing 4 pumps a day and I still wasnt feeling right, So I switched over to 6 pumps and started to feel a lot better. The Patch how ever is only 5mg per patch. Now my Endo said it should work better because the patch will get the full amount into my body vs the gel that even can be more in MG isnt getting fully used. Anyone have any experience using the Patch that would care to give there 2 cents.

Edit: She also told me that if the patch isnt making me feel better that I could use 2x 5MG patches a day and see how that makes me feel. Only problem is the Patch for 30day s at 1 patch a day is 45.00 vs now I am paying for 4pumps 30day gel 25.00. I guess even if I double my Gel amount it would come out to be the same amount anyways. I just couldnt find any info on using the Patch and doing 2x 5mg a day. Seems like that will cost me 90.00 a month at that rate.

Last edited: Oct 30, 2010

I am sorry to tell you this but going from the gel to the patch is going back wards men were so dam happy when the gel came out and they could drop the patch.

Here is why the patch is a big pain in the A it falls off when you sweat. When you change it it leaves glue on you that you can t wash off. Also this is the bad part you can t put the patch on the same spot for 7 days. When you take the patch off it leaves a Red Rash that will not heal in 7 days without some HC cream.

One 5mg patch for most men is not enough so you end up doing 10 mgs this is even bigger so your rash is bigger.

And Endo s are not good Dr. s for low T.

Ug thanks for the info I was hoping it would be a better choice to go with, as I find my self having to work my life around the Gel on some days and as well as dont want it to rub off on anyone it shouldnt. I was told by my endo this might be a better choice but now not sure if its a smart move to make :/ Do you happen to have sensitive skin. or most feed back about the patch is the same about it leaving burns

The patch worked great for me for just over a month. It stayed put even in the shower and was easier to deal with than the Testim I had used previously. However after about 5 weeks I started to get the wicked skin reaction suddenly. I feel I was getting a more stable effect from the patch. All I can say is try all the options you have till you find what works best for you. I liked the patch because I could just slap it on and go and no worry about transfer to the wife like with the gel. The glue residue was a very minor issue to me. It would usually rub off easily in the shower a day after the patch is removed.

If you asked my Dr. what to do he would not tell you try the patch. Most men I talked to that did the patch back in the day and it is old had the same problems. My Dr. would tell you do shots he has me doing them every 3 days and I add HCG the day before this keeps me leveled and even.

The patch worked great for me for just over a month. It stayed put even in the shower and was easier to deal with than the Testim I had used previously. However after about 5 weeks I started to get the wicked skin reaction suddenly. I feel I was getting a more stable effect from the patch. All I can say is try all the options you have till you find what works best for you. I liked the patch because I could just slap it on and go and no worry about transfer to the wife like with the gel. The glue residue was a very minor issue to me. It would usually rub off easily in the shower a day after the patch is removed.

Click to expand

Ah thanks for the Info Packing. What time did you find best to put it on, some said in the morning was working others said use it at night. I would think I would have trouble sleeping with putting it on before going to bed.

Your right after looking into it more I did find some good info on it, it might as well be worth it to try, did you do the 2.5 or 5mg / how much did you use

did your endo even test why you were not absorbing the gel.

have you considered shots instead.

the patch might seem convenient but nothing I read about it made

me want to go out and slap one on my scrotum

did your endo even test why you were not absorbing the gel.

She talked to me about the shots and said they can be good and bad in that if you are doing it every 2 weeks the amount you get can go up and down. I had my 1st appointment with my endo today. I was given the Gel pump by my family doctor as my levels came back extremely low. She is picking up the pieces and working to find out whats up with me.

Its not that I am not absorbing the Gel, its that my test lvl came back at 63 the 1st time around and 47 the 2nd time around. My T lvls are very low and at 4 pumps a day 5mg isn t really going to change the world. Sure it makes me feel better then I was before treatment but not like I really should be. I don t mind the Gel other then the fact that I would have to put a lot more of it on and I don t want it to get on someone who shouldn t be in contact with it.

why just why aww, man I m really hoping that you are not Iansupermusulmanone0789.

Wow. Through my insurance I still pay 244 a month for Androgel.

Both work about the same for me as far as rainging my test level, but I seem to have higher estradiol levels with Adrogel as compared to the patch.

If your levels are coming back that low after applying the gel it is because you aren t absorbing it well.

For me that was totally dependant on where I applied it. I was worried about transferring it to others so I was applying it to my abdomen and sides where the insert says you can apply it and my levels came back extremely low. When I switched to applying it only on my shoulders and upper arms, my levels increased dramatically.

I have to use 8 pumps a day and you have to get over the feeling you will transfer it to others. A simple t shirt covering that area will prevent transfer.

I put mine on at 10-11 p.m. every night and had no trouble sleeping. If applied at night they are supposed closely mimic the natural rhythm of normal test production. Look up the Androderm product insert at the mfg. website. It explains everything you need to know.

These are in no way meant to be put on your scrotum. That would be suicide. Also, avoid putting anywhere you have hair. These stick like super glue. I had best luck on upper arms and back. Good luck. These don t work out for most people due to skin irritation. Maybe you will be one of the lucky ones.

I appear to have hypermetabolism/hyperexcretion problems and have just been moved to injections which are to me the most conveinent treatment. I just hope I don t lose the erection benefits I am getting from the elevated DHT I have with the Testim. :biggrin:

Now, I m suspicious of the lot of you except for Phil and bgnb, obviously.

. Me confused.

I ve discussed these types of TRT administration with my Doc: pellets, patches, sublingual, transdermal, and injections. He inidicated that as far as he is concerned the only viable options available to him are transdermal and injection. I am not sure either pellets or patches are generally considered standard of practice for TRT in the US anymore. When I saw a group of people considering switching from transdermal to patch, I got suspicious.

Again, why would that method of adminstration ever be be preferable.

Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution

patch or gel are both transdermal :/ and i am in the US

I wanted to increase my amount of MG per day, I didnt want to put more pumps on and asked about doing the injection. My Endo said it might be worth trying the patch as I could do 2x 5mg patches a day vs doing a bunch more pumps per day.

I am an OR Tech, I need to do a morning scrub past my elbows with the Gel I was coming close alot of times to water getting to that Area before the Gel was fully absorb into my skin. I at some point would like to date and later on down the road have kids, I dont want them getting the crap on them. I go to the Gym, depending on work days I might go early in the morning and feeling like taking a shower after. If I put the Gel early in the morning I need to wait to be able to shower or its just going to get washed off. The patch was an Idea to replace the Gel that is all.

I dont get it what are you getting suspicious of. I came asking a question not like I am trying to con someone out of something well other then there 2 cents maybe.

Okay, I understand where you are coming from now. I was associating your distrust with another thread where you and another member discovered someone was actually someone elsethink troll meltdown over diet differences.

Anyway.I m cautiously optimistic about my husband starting androgel soon. I don t want to set expectations too high so we ll get let down. I know he could end up a nonresponder despite exfoliation, correct soaps and appliations sites.I know he could still convert too much T to estradiol but reading your posts one gets a lot of hope.

If you don t mind, could you answer this personal question. And here s the lengthy set up.after some discussion with another member here, I ve decided my husband is the type who doesn t need sex for emotional reasons. He doesn t need it for ego or worthhe doesn t feel love from it. He doesn t need makeup sex after an argument to restore a feeling of togetheness. It is just an act for him which he enjoys and wants when he s horny. Also, he knows it makes me happy so that gives him some incentive.

So, I ve realized we are so different since I do need sex for all the above mentioned reasons and not so much for horniness but that is there too. When he was younger, he had better hormonal levels of course, so his genitals talked more to him so he chased me. I thought until recently that sex was emotionally bonding for him but nope he told me the other day it isn t really, although he is very loving to me. So I think to increase our sex life he just simply needs to be genitally horny more. I guess it s as simple as that. I know sex starts in the brain, the dopamine issue and all thatbut even with higher dopamine levels from various supplements, that did not do much for my husband.

Are you the type who needs sex for more reasons other than being horny or is it just genital urges that drive you. I m trying to work out if men who get good sexual response on TRT are of a certain type and once their hormone levels are restored, they are emotionally healthier so they desire sex again for that reason along with a higher physical libido. My husband had lots of morning wood when he was on shots but his libido never really got revving - it had moments.

Long way of saying.do you think successful T gel application can make a man think with his genitals again at 54. I think that s what I m asking LOL. I guess that is an atypical question for a woman but I d love your answer.

I ll take this to another thread or pm if OP considers this hijacking.

I wouldnt mind knowing as well. I am only 24 and I still have Zero sex drive. I would have thought that would have come back or maybe even semi changed but nothing.

Where did you apply the gel before. Alot of guy are instucted to apply to their belly. Not a great idea. I used to apply to the inside bicep and forearms. My levels shot up when I did this as oppossed to the stomach. You could also try a compounded cream that has a higher concentration than androgel. I was using 150mg/ml cream that was compounded and then applying 1 packet of androgel after. 1 packet, I believe, is equal to 4 pumps. That is only 50mg/per day. Rather low dose. Not alot of people respond well to this low dose. Typically, guys will have to double that to get any responce. I strongly recomend trying to double your dose and apply to the upper arms and shoulders. I cannot see why anyone would want to do the patch.

Where did you apply the gel before. Alot of guy are instucted to apply to their belly. Not a great idea. I used to apply to the inside bicep and forearms. My levels shot up when I did this as oppossed to the stomach. You could also try a compounded cream that has a higher concentration than androgel. I was using 150mg/ml cream that was compounded and then applying 1 packet of androgel after. 1 packet, I believe, is equal to 4 pumps. That is only 50mg/per day. Rather low dose. Not alot of people respond well to this low dose. Typically, guys will have to double that to get any responce. I strongly recomend trying to double your dose and apply to the upper arms and shoulders. I cannot see why anyone would want to do the patch.

I am doing 1 pump on bi/shoulder of each arm and 1 pump on each side of my stomach. so 4 pumps in all. Thanks for the tip I will try to do 6 pumps tomorrow morning doing it on my Bi / Shoulders. It wont make much of a difference if its all just put on in one spot. I would think the more its spread out the better it would get into your body but guess not.

Sure, no problem. I need sex for personal attachment. I am monogamous and prefer to continually reinforce a single strand, others prefer to hedge their bets. To each their own.

Nope, at least I hope not. But spontaneous erections can make a man of any age rethink things.

Odds are that if your hubby needs T, he will respond favorably.

Okay, thanks for your perspective. I guess I only want him to think with his genitals toward me but that may not go with that territory. Of course I want him to stay monogamous.but I ve come to realize sex is not the big bonding experience for him as it is for me so it all has to completely come down to genital desire I guess.

I think it is less realistic for couples where one views sex the way he does to keep up frequent sex as years go on without really successful hormone therapy. I mean from his point of view, why do it if there is waning libido. Others of us who view sex differently want to keep it up to feel close to our partners. Probably a pretty common issue in marriages as spouses age or in my case when there is a significant age gap.

Well.I am going to quit harping on this now.

It really doesn t matter how much you put on one spot. Just keep rubbing it in. The inside bicep and forarm are great application site. It getts abosrbed pretty quick. I think the info that comes with it says you can shower 1 hr later. Some guys do some crazy skin prep for application. I never did, but to each his own. If you have some extra, try to double your dose. I know its alot of gel, but see if you respond. If not, its time to try some compounded cream. Usually guys that have a hard time absorbing have underlying thyroid issues. Do you have any thyroid labs. If so post them.

I find my self having to work my life around the Gel on some days and as well as dont want it to rub off on anyone it shouldnt.

Your only reliable and healthy-in-the-long-term solutions are:

a allow your hormones to operate in a degraded state, and minimize the amount of damage you do to your body by eating pure foods and never over-stressing your body.

b Use HCG monotherapy to boost your testosterone, but this can result in too much conversion of T into E2, or not enough DHT not enough libido.

c Use intramuscular injection of a testosterone ester in an oil base, such as testosterone cypionate in an oil base. The testosterone ester converts simply into testosterone without any side effects due to the conversion of the testosterone ester into testosterone. The oil base is absorbed and metabolized same as oil digested orally.

d Use subcutaneous injection of testosterone ester in a water base, such as testosterone cypionate in a water base. Since you are working with an endocrinologist you will never get this option underway with an endocrinologist. This is a very advanced option, and you will only get it working if you either:

a work with one of the medical professional advisers who know a truckload about hormones, such as Dr Crisler

b work with your existing doctor by driving your doctor from the back seat - and of course very few doctors allow their patients to do this. This option requires that you can convince your doctor that you know more about hormone modulation therapy than he / she does.

.

I cant do anything on my Arms past my elbows but 2day after taking a shower I used 6 pumps 1on each bi, 1 on each side of my shoulders and 1 on each side of my chest. Going to see how that works. Silly question but why wouldnt the Gel get used up when putting it on your chest. I am on the skinny side I would think it wouldnt have to get past much fat on me.

I do feel a bit more up beat.

You could do it on your arms, you just need to adjust your application time. There is no reason it would not work on your chest. The thinnest skin seems to work best, the stuff with minimal fat under it. Keep experimenting with your self and find out what works best for yourself. When I applied it to my shoulders and chest, I dropped 100 points on the total testosterone test. Doesn t mean it won t work for you. You have to try different things.

You could do it on your arms, you just need to adjust your application time. There is no reason it would not work on your chest. The thinnest skin seems to work best, the stuff with minimal fat under it. Keep experimenting with your self and find out what works best for yourself. When I applied it to my shoulders and chest, I dropped 100 points on the total testosterone test. Doesn t mean it won t work for you. You have to try different things.

Yea I was reading a few differnent spots that can be done, some even said the feet. As for arms arms I can not, I do a morning scrub and then after every case I need to use the gel junk. Id need to get up even early then I do as it is. Not going to get up before -5AM if I don t have to _

That is one of the main reasons why I was looking into the patch, but after reading a lot of down sides to it I am going to retalk it over with my Endo tomorrow after work. I am not really liking the idea of the Chemical burns you can get from it and it coasting alot more.

I think at this point its safe to say that I just need to find out what amount works best, I am going to talk to my endo and keep it at 6pumps a day and see how my Blood work comes back after I get it done next Sat. If its still low then I will just keep adding pumps till I find out what works.

Don t go over 8 pumps. If you need that much, you need to look into compounded cream. You can get it in a more concentrated form. Most endos won t be open to that. Hope it works out for you.

look into compounded cream no matter how many pumps of androgel you need.

Its working well for me. I had to cut it back, actually, as my T went over the top of the range. 1/10th the material. I put it on my shoulderthats all the real estate you need, so it wouldn t interfere w/ your scrubbing.

look into compounded cream no matter how many pumps of androgel you need.

Cool. Thanks for the info. I talked to my endo and told her I didnt want to do the patch so we agreed on that I would do 6 pumps a day till we find out what happens with my blood work and take it from there and talk about more options.

If you dont mind me asking is the cream alot. does it come in a pump. How many MG per use is it. With the 6 pumps a day I do feel about 5 times better then the low 4 pumps.

My endo thinks I might have kallmann syndrome. Since I do have problems with smell and I have always felt this way even since I was very young. But we will see.

The compounded stuff I use is 100mg/ml. So, 1ml is equivalent to 2 tubes of Testim which is what I was on before. I don t know how that equates to pumps of Androgel. I thought they were mixed the same 1 T gel.

1/10th of the goo that you have to rub on, is the bottom line.

It comes in a 10ml graduated syringe. you just squeeze out 1ml at a time. I was rx d 100ml/day, so I was doing 1ml of cream per dayprescription came w/ 3 of these syringes. I ve cut it back, since my labs came back showing high Tand I was flushed all the time. looked like I just came from the beachexcept, I didn t. So I ve been doing. 6mls per day. feel okI think actually better than with the higher dose. at least, I notice more morning wood. probably had too high E2, at the higher dose.

The consistency of the stuff is like hand cream. no smell. not sticky. rubs in quick, cuz there s not that much of it. Shoulder application seems to be working fine, for me.

The pharmicist told me that the retail cost is 125/monthmy insurance co-pay is 50. crazy, but the Testim retails for 600, but insurance co-pay with that was 20. criminal. charge me more than double for something that is 1/4 the price.

since I m actually cutting the dose almost in half, it works out about the same.

Very nice, I will have to talk it over with my Endo when I have my next appointment with her. As of now I am feeling good with the 6pumps a day. I think I can hold out for a bit till I find out how my levels are. I still feel like stuff isnt all that right yet but from what I read the Androgel is a solid choice and works down the road. Just takes a bit to get the ball rolling.

But still This is something I am going to bring up. I dont mind the Androgel but the massive amounts you put on a day is a bit over kill.

I am on the compounded cream also..same dose as Tuberous.. but I am using the full prescribed amount

My retail cost. .w/o insurance is 31 a month

wow thats not to bad at all. I am right now paying like 5.00 and change. I have a 1year or 12 fill discount on it, after that its 24.99 for a box of 2 bottles Last 30days if you do 4pumps a day I will have to see how much it will run under my insurance.

With the Cream, do you find that you felt alot better sooner. Or has all you ever used is the cream. With using the Cream do you feel also that it drops during the day. It might just be me but I find my self crashing some days anytime past 2 in the afternoon unless I am at work..Then I am spacing out waiting for the hours to pass so I can lay down.

Since I started my Androgel a bit over a month ago I have also been extremly hungry, even more so then normal. I do hit the Gym 3days a week and lift heavy / do a bit of Cardio after my workouts and on Sunday But still my hunger has been off the wall since I started the HRT. Have you had any thing like this using the Cream. Or is this just from the HRT its self and happens no matter what your on P

Last edited: Nov 1, 2010

You can get compounded cream in whatever strength required, although typically anything over 200mg/ml gets pasty when applied. I was paying 35 monthly for the cream. If you are paying through insurance, prices will vary. Insurance companies get big discounts from pharmacutical companies because they are both in each others pocket. That is typically why compounded cream is more costly with insurance.

Androgel is 50mg/5mls or 10mg/ml as compared to 100mg/ml which would equate to 1/10 of the applied volume for the same mg strength.

Thats crazy-cheap. I know, everything is more expensive up here in the northeastbut that does seem rather disproportionate.

I don t really feel much different switching to the cream, except that I am probably absorbing the cream better than the big-pharma product. I was getting rather flushed, even on Testimbut it seemed to intensify w/ the cream, and the labs did show higher T levels on the cream. The flushing is less since I ve cut back. People here have suggested that its too high E2, but I don t have access to a doc that ll chase all those numbers.. As I mentioned before, better morning wood at the lower dose, too, so its probably closer to where I should be.

I never noticed any increase in hunger since starting TRT, but I don t work out, or anything. It makes logical sense that you would, if you exercise a lot, doing things that trigger the signals to build muscle. T is the signal, but not the building block. If your body wants to make more muscle, its got to make it out of calories of protein.

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What is it used for.Replacement therapy of low testosterone levels in men.How does it work.

Andropatch skin patches contain the active ingredient testosterone, which is the same as the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone.

Testosterone is known as an androgen. It is produced by the testicles and is the main hormone essential for normal growth and development of the male sex organs and male sexual characteristics.

The natural production of testosterone is controlled by another set of hormones called gonadotrophins, which are released from the pituitary gland in the brain.

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During adult life, testosterone is essential for the production of sperm, the maintenance of sex drive, erectile potency, and the functioning of the prostate gland and other reproductive structures. It also has functions in the skin, muscles, skeleton, kidney, liver, bone marrow and central nervous system.

Low levels of testosterone can cause decreased sex drive, impotence, infertility due to decreased sperm production, decreased mental and physical activity, fatigue and weakening of bones.

Testosterone is given as replacement therapy when natural testosterone levels fall too low, causing symptoms such as those above. Natural testosterone levels fall with age and following surgical removal of the testicles castration. They may also fall due to decreased functioning of the testicles hypogonadism or eunuchoidism caused by testicular disease, or by decreased gonadotrophin production by the pituitary gland, as a result of pituitary disease.

Testosterone replacement allows natural testosterone levels to return to normal, thus relieving the symptoms of the deficiency.

Andropatches are skin patches that contain a reservoir of testosterone. The patch is applied to the skin of the back, abdomen, upper arms or thighs. The testosterone is absorbed through the skin from the patch and passes into the bloodstream.

The patches are designed to release the testosterone in a manner that mimics the body s natural production of testosterone. One Andropatch is applied every night at approximately 10pm and is replaced after 24 hours. This produces maximum blood levels of testosterone in the early morning hours and minimum levels in the evening, as would occur naturally.Warning.This medicine is not to be taken by mouth.The patch should be applied to a clean, dry area of skin on the back, abdomen, upper arms or thighs. Avoid bony areas such as shoulders and hips that may be subjected to prolonged pressure during sleeping or sitting, as this may cause burn-like reactions of the skin.Do not apply the patches to the scrotum, or to broken, damaged, irritated or oily skin.The patch should be changed every 24 hours, and the new patch applied to a different area. Leave an interval of seven days before using the same site again. Dispose of the used patch by folding it in half with the sticky side inwards and discard carefully in a bin. The used patch will still contain some testosterone, so make sure that it is out of the reach of children and pets.Do not cut the patches.You will need to have blood tests to measure your blood level of testosterone before starting and regularly throughout treatment with this medicine.Tell your doctor if you experience symptoms such as frequent or persistent erections, irritability, nervousness or weight gain after starting treatment with this medicine, as these suggest your testosterone levels are too high and your dose may need adjusting.You will also need to have regular blood tests to monitor your red blood cells, liver function and prostate specific antigen PSA levels.Testosterone can increase the growth of prostate cancers and benign enlargement of the prostate. Your doctor will perform various examinations to make sure you don t have prostate cancer before you start treatment with this medicine. Your doctor will need to perform a digital rectal exam to check your prostate gland at least once a year while you are receiving testosterone replacement more frequently than this if you are elderly or have risk factors for prostate cancer. Use with caution inNot to be used inWomen.Children less than 15 years of age.Prostate cancer.Breast cancer in men.A syndrome caused by kidney inflammation, characterised by a large amount of protein in the urine, swelling, weight gain and high blood pressure nephrotic syndrome. High levels of calcium in the blood hypercalcaemia.

This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.

If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.Side effects

Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.Skin reactions at application site, such as itching, irritation, redness or rash.Allergic contact dermatitis.More severe burn-like skin reactions at application site, with blistering and ulceration these may take a few weeks to heal and may leave a scar, they are more likely if you apply the patch to bony areas - tell your doctor if affected. Acne.Headache.Depression.Anxiety.Nausea.Hair loss alopecia. Pins and needles paraesthesia. Salt and water retention.Swelling caused by fluid retention oedema. High blood pressure hypertension. Persistent painful erection of the penis priapism. Decreased sperm count.Prostate disorders.Changes in sex drive.Abnormal enlargement of breasts in men gynaecomastia. Increased levels of red blood cells and haemoglobin in the blood.Jaundice.

The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the drug s manufacturer.

For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.How can this medicine affect other medicines.

It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while taking this one, to ensure that the combination is safe.

Testosterone may increase the anti-blood-clotting effects of anticoagulants such as warfarin, nicoumalone and phenindione. If you are taking any of these your blood clotting time INR may need to be monitored more frequently; in particular it should be measured after you start or stop testosterone treatment.

If testosterone is used in combination with corticosteroids such as dexamethasone, there may be a greater chance of fluid retention and oedema since both medicines can cause fluid retention. This combination of medicines should be used with caution in people with heart, liver or kidney disease.

If you have diabetes, your dose of insulin or antidiabetic tablets may need to be reduced after you start treatment with this medicine.Other medicines containing the same active ingredient

Last updated 13.08.2007.

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Taylormade White Headed Driver

Unfortunately I am old enough to remember when TaylorMade introduced the first R series driver with the R300 series. Since then they have given us the R500, R5, R7, R9, R11 and then the chronologically challenged R1 before surprisingly ditching the R name for the loft up message of the SLDR driver.

The SLDR driver may not have been the most commercially successful driver TaylorMade has ever done, but it did herald their new philosophy of low forward centre of gravity CG and low spin for more distance.

Now TaylorMade return to the R brand name that served them so well in the past with the R15 driver and are building on the low forward CG message to hopefully get the best of both worlds.

It is good to see the R name back and the larger profile of the R15 quickly sets it apart from the taller and more compact SLDR, even though both are 460cc heads.

As you can see the white crown is back too. Having been told white was the answer to all alignment issues with R11, TaylorMade went to the dark side with the black crowned SLDR and now the R15 is back in white. With a black option, just in case.

I am easy about this, as having a white crown and a black face does make it easier to align, but why then does the R15 with the black crown have a black face rather than a silver one like the SLDR. It could be a trend thing or maybe black R drivers are destined to be dark, as the R1 Black had a black face too.

At least they are going back to what they know works and more importantly sells, even if at first glance there is not much visual difference in the crown graphics from the R11 driver to the R15 and its plain white head.

Enough about colours and names, the real difference with the R15 driver is the Front Track, which has evolved from the SLDR by making it longer and adding a second weight. The SLDR has one 20g weight whereas the R15 has two 12.5g weights giving you an extra 5g of CG moving fun.

The Front Track is also 12mm closer to the front edge of the R15 face, so now the channel acts like a Speed Pocket to allow the face to flex a bit more so you get less fall in ball speed and hence distance on off centre hits. This design also moves 40g of weight closer to the face than on the SLDR, resulting in 75 of the total mass of the driver being low and forward.

This is where the low and forward CG message comes in as that is good for ball speed and distance, but sometimes not great for forgiveness. I had to check this out.

Right from the first swing I could tell this was a completely different club to the SLDR. For starters it was much easier to get it in the air. Compared to the SLDR in the same loft setting, the flight was much higher wherever I hit it on the face and the face was more forgiving too.

The SLDR was good if you hit it out of the middle, preferably with a higher swing speed. If you didn t, then the performance suffered and this is where the R15 driver makes the difference by giving more forgiveness and a better flight with less effort.

Using Trackman I could see that the spin rates were about the same as the SLDR with the two R15 weights together in the neutral setting in the middle.

The sound throughout was really good without being too high pitched or shouty, which some TaylorMade drivers have been in the past.

The two sliding weights on the sole also make a difference. I started with them both in the middle and the effect was to give a much more solid strike as the mass is directly behind the ball, which should in turn give more distance.

Unscrewing with the supplied wrench and sliding both weights together to the full draw and fade setting did change the shape of shot I produced, but in a reasonably subtle way. With the weights towards the heel it had the effect of changing a straight shot to a draw rather than anything that will straighten up a raging slice or vice versa.

I then moved the weights apart with one at each end for the most forgivness as the stability of the head is increased in this setting. On Trackman it showed an increase of 300 rpm in ball spin and a 7 increase in trajectory height compared to having the weights in neutral, which is what I expected, so the Front Track is doing its job. Again it did feel more forgiving and the sound was a little hollower than the nice solid, but fairly muted sound of the neutral middle setting.

What I do like is the option to tighten the weights at any point along the Front Track and there are 21 possible choices. This enables you to fine tune the CG location so you can get exactly the right balance of weight from heel to toe in a place that makes it the best club for you, rather than the nearest best alternative determined by the manufacturer.

There is also an adjustable hosel allowing up to /- 2 of loft changes with a standard or upright lie and that is all in one head. In addtion there is a choice of 4 heads in lofts from 9.5 to a new high of 14 in both colours, plus a 430cc head option in white only. Therefore custom fitting of your R15 driver is esential to get the right head, then the right loft, lie and weight settings to get the best out of it.

The R15 shaft is a similar Fujikura Speeder 57g to the SLDR and the length is a manageable 45.5 inches, which was one of the best things about the SLDR and is great to see this being continued.

The final touch that is worthy of mention is the retro white headcover that has a leather look and feel. It looks very classy even though it does not have a shaft sleeve, but most golf bags these days should have enough protection. I am not sure how white it will stay on the courses I play, but it does look good out of the box and stays on the club well.

When you take that lovely headcover off to reveal the new Front Track, you get this feeling the the R15 is all business, as R drivers have been in the past. And when it comes to the business end of the driver then it does deliver, which it really has to as this is not a cheap driver and visually it looks like the R11.

The R15 is much easier to get going than the SLDR and the adjustabiity from the sliding track and the 4 loft options should enable you to get the most distance from your swing and provide a good level of forgiveness.

In the last year the driver market has seen a re-alignment and there are several good models out there with different CG strategies on how to pulverise a golf ball. TaylorMade may have gone back in time to the R name to go forward, but with the R15 driver they have a quality driver that will be a strong contender for the number one sales position.

User Reviews.

TaylorMade R15 Driver Review

After much anticipation, TaylorMade has just released their first official sneak peek at their new R11 Series. Introducing the 2011 launch of the TaylorMade R11.

Winner. Winner. Congratulations WestPAgolfer you re the winner of a brand new TaylorMade AeroBurner Mini Driver. Check your email.

taylormade white headed driver TaylorMade’s SLDR Mini Driver is the Club You Never Knew You Needed (and still might not)

Reviews. See Reviews above as same as similar to standard version. TaylorMade SLDR 430 Driver. Many better players prefer the look of a smaller club head as they feel.

TaylorMade drivers are currently the 1 driver played on the PGA Tour. TaylorMade first introduced steel-headed woods in golf, and they have been on the leading edge.

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  • Mar 04, 2011  Mark Crossfield hits the Taylormade Burner 2.0 Superfast driver. Watch the white headed Burner driver tested by Mark. See how it.
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Written By: Tony Covey

Gentlemen and the three handfuls of ladies that read this site, prepare to wowed excited even or agitated, or maybe just sit calmly in a state of tepid indifference.

Whatever. I m good with any of it.

This isn t one of those days where I m going to tell you how to feel or what to think.

What I m certain of is that today s Official announcement of the SLDR Mini Driver will leave you feeling something or nothing.

What the Hell is a Mini Driver.

Order SLDR Mini Driver Today – 279

For those of you just hearing about this for the first time, the SLDR Mini Driver is TaylorMade s latest driver or fairway wood or something inbetween. For the purposes of Golf Datatech s retail surveys, I m reasonably positive actually, let s go with 99.999 positive the Mini is going to be classified as a driver. But out here in the real world or at least on the golf course, the true nature of this particular species is going to vary from bag to bag.

Let s start with the particulars.

The SLDR Mini, be it driver or fairway, has a 260cc steel head, comes in lofts of 12, 14, and 16, and the stock shaft length is 43.5. Like everything else with SLDR stamped or glued to the sole, the Mini features a low/forward center of gravity placement for low spin and with a properly fit head high launch.

Does that clear it up.

Didn t think so. Maybe this will help.

According to TaylorMade, the SLDR Mini was designed to be hit primarily off the tee, but with its smooth sole I m talking Barry White smooth-you-out-of-your-knickers smooth, it s much easier to hit off the deck than a conventional driver. Incidentally, that turf interaction piece is why you would maybe consider Mini over cutting 2 off your driver.

Leave it to TaylorMade to create the club you never knew you needed.

Actually, leave it to TaylorMade to create the club you needed in 2001.

13 years and 200cc later, what used to be called a driver is reborn as the SLDR Mini Driver.

Ain t that something.

If I told you that SLDR Mini Driver was actually a ThrowBackThursday idea that simply got out of hand, you might be inclined to believe me.

So I asked Brian Bazzel, TaylorMade s Senior Director of Product Creation for Metalwoods, why his damn title is so long. After that I asked him why TaylorMade felt compelled to reinvent the driver from 2002.

Bazzel touched on the talking points from the press release. Things like this:

Tour pros and betters amateurs often hit their 3-wood off the tee more often than from the fairway. We embraced that fact to create a metalwood that s sized between the average 3-wood and driver and designed to be easy to hit off a tee. – Brian Bazzel, TaylorMade Golf

He spoke about things like control and workability, and the old-school guys who have never been comfortable with the adjustment from sub-300cc to the modern 460cc driver. And then matter of factly he added:

Over the years, as driver volume has increased to 460cc, fairway wood volume has stayed basically the same. – Brian Bazzel

I m of two minds on that:

Most golfers don t think in terms of head volume. I mean, some may prefer 440cc drivers to 460cc drivers, but I don t think many if any have concerned themselves with the volume gap between their 460cc driver and their 160cc 3-wood.

I also know that golf is a psychological game. It s true that some golfers have never completely adjusted to 460cc, or 425, or even 400cc drivers. Some guys grew up playing with sub-300cc drivers and liked it and long for those bygone days of yore, and there are some guys who inexplicably can t hit a big-headed driver.

I d make a joke, but the truth is that back in the days of R580 I hit nothing but 3-wood off the tee for two straight years simply because the driver got in my head and I couldn t get it out.

Now I can t hit 3-wood to save my life, but that s another story.

Call it a driver. Call it a fairway. Call it completely unnecessary. Whatever, like I said, I m good with whatever you think.

Is the Mini Driver Even Really a SLDR.

Prefacing this with a reminder that the actual name of the club isn t SLIDER, it s S L D R es-el-dee-are, or es-el-dee-arrrrrr for you pirates out there, here are some things that differentiate the Mini Driver from all, or some of the existing SLDR lineup.

Unlike SLDR Driver both 460 and 430, SLDR Fairway, and SLDR Rescue, the SLDR Mini Driver isn t the least bit adjustable. More to the point, your loft is your loft. Live with it.

Unlike SLDR Driver, but not unlike the namesake fairway and rescue, SLDR Mini Driver has no actual SLiDeR. Apparently sole bling isn t conducive to that smooth turf interaction we talked about. The only way you re going to tweak your draw or fade with the Mini Driver is to alter your face to path relationship. That s Trackman wisdom, kid.

That s right, there s not single purposeful spot on the club that will allow you to make use of anything in your stack of TaylorMade wrenches. Quite frankly, I m not sure how I feel about that. Sad maybe.

Unlike all the other SLDR stuff, instead of a glossy charcoal crown, SLDR Mini comes in a smooth matte silver. While the contrast with the black clubface doesn t get us back to the Science of White, it does give it Science of Silver sort of vibe, so there s that.

SLDR Mini Driver isn t the type of product that s going to set the world, or even the cash registers, on fire, but it is an intriguing option for guys who play on relatively short courses, are looking for more control off the tee, or who have otherwise totally abandoned the conventional 3-wood or the 460cc driver.

As it happens, I qualify for most of the above.

Something Old or Something Borrowed.

While not even TaylorMade is going to argue that spec for spec the SLDR Mini doesn t look a hell of a lot different from your 12 year-old driver, Brian Bazzel told me that TaylorMade sees Mini in a category unto itself. As you might imagine, if golfers take to the Mini they buy the club in meaningful numbers, TaylorMade will be ready and happy to expand their offerings in the category whatever you want to call it.

There s also little doubt in my mind that suggestions will be made actually, they ve already been made that TaylorMade s inspiration from the Mini was borrowed from Callaway Deep Series fairway wood or even the PING Rapture 3-Wood.

Having hit the Rapture, which is already larger than the X2 Hot 2 Deep, I ll tell you that I personally don t see it, but by all means, decide for yourself.

Here s a comparison chart:

How Does SLDR Mini Driver Perform.

All of this background info is great unless you totally don t give a damn – in which case, why have you read this far., but we thought some of you would be interested to see how the SLDR Mini Driver performed, and where that performance suggests the Mini Driver might actually fit in your bag.

We brought in a few of our testers to hit the Mini alongside the SLDR Drivers 460 and 430 as well as the 14 SLDR Tour Spoon Fairway. We tested with the equipment we had on hand using stock TP shafts. As the chart below indicates, we delofted the fairway to get to 12.5 as close to 12 as the settings allowed, and added loft to a 10.5 430cc head to get to 12.

We hit all of the clubs off the tee and also hit the Mini Driver and the Fairway from a fairway lie. Here are the average results.

From the fairway, the Mini produced numbers quite similar to the fairway wood. It s not an unreasonable stretch to assume that the extra distance and higher ball speed is a result of the additional 1/4 of shaft length.

What I think is most telling is the similar even slightly better accuracy numbers. Our preliminary data suggests that the Mini Driver isn t any more difficult to hit of the deck than your average TaylorMade fairway wood – even if it will look like a bulky monstrosity to many of you.

As far as hitting out of the rough goes we didn t try it, but I did ask Brian Bazzel about from-the-rough performance. He basically told me that if you can t hit a standard fairway wood out of the rough, you re not going to be able to hit the Mini out either. Me I ve never been afraid to try it, but it s almost never gone well. Your actual mileage may vary.

Off the tee, the numbers broke out more or less how we expected they would. The SLDR 430 is a beast, and it basically did it exactly what we expected it to off the heels of our 2014 Most Wanted Driver test. It was the longest, it spun less, and yes it didn t fly as straight as the others.

The real story lies in the other 3 clubs. In theory, the 460cc SLDR head should be the most forgiving, and the easiest for most to hit straight, and again that proved to be the case for us. Telling perhaps, the mini wasn t that far behind, and again our data suggests it s slightly more forgiving than the SLDR fairway wood, which also makes perfect sense given the larger head.

In looking at the chart above you ll notice that the SLDR Mini Driver fell almost in the absolute middle between the 460 driver and the fairway wood for Carry Yards, Total Distance, Ball Speed, and to a lesser extent that accuracy number. Obviously we d like to see that spin number go down a bit, but that could simply be a matter of finding the ideal tee height. We really don t know.

If for any reason you think you have a need for something to fill the gap you may never have realized existed between your driver and a conventional 3-wood, the SLDR Mini Driver would seem to fit the bill.

Timed for Augusta

I m not one who generally believes in coincidence anyway, and I never believe in coincidence when it comes to TaylorMade, so it s pretty safe to assume that this announcement was cleverly timed for Masters Week also, TaylorMade told me as much. We try to condition you not to care what Tour guys are bagging, but for those who do concern themselves with such things, I m told that the probably is extremely high that Justin Rose will have the SLDR Mini bent to 13 in play at Augusta.

While Rose would use the Mini primarily from the tee, he s said that he could conceivably use it to play his second on 8 the only place other than the tee on the entire course he s likely to use a 3-wood anyway.

While TaylorMade would no doubt love to have more Mini Drivers in play during the most-watched tournament of the season, Augusta isn t a place where equipment companies, even TaylorMade, are likely to try and force an equipment change on any of their staffers. If more Minis make it into play this week, it s because a given staffer or we re told potentially non-TaylorMade staffer believes it will give him the best shot at winning the biggest of the big ones.

Some Closing Thoughts

As intrigued as I am by the Mini I ll definitely be spending some on-course time with it when the rest of this miserable snow melts, for many it s probably not destined to be an everyday club. I see the Mini as very much a horse-for-the-course option.

Playing in a scramble and want something a little longer than your 3-wood. Grab a Mini.

Playing a shorter course where control is at a premium. Grab a Mini.

Do you hate your big-headed driver and conventional 3-woods. Grab 2 Minis.

Sure, there will be guys who take the driver out of their bag for a Mini, but for most of us, I think it will prove to be more fairway wood than driver assuming it proves to be anything at all.

The SLDR Mini Driver almost certainly won t be longer than your driver,  and it may not prove to be more forgiving or more accurate than your driver either, but as a hybrid of sorts between a driver and a 3-wood, it fills the space nicely even if we re only hearing about that space for the first time today.

The SLDR Mini Driver hits stores May 2nd.

Retail price is 279 for the standard model and 379 for the TP model.

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Got more than 2 words to say. Share your thoughts in the comment section below.

According to TaylorMade, the SLDR Mini Driver was designed to be hit off the tee, but with its smooth sole I m talking Barry White.

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2014 Amplitude Studios. All rights reserved.

Endless Legend, GAMES2GETHER, Amplitude Studios and Amplitude Studios logo are trademarks of Amplitude Studios in the U.S. and other countries.

Amplitude Studios reserves the rights to monitor, suspend or terminate access to the Amplitude Studios forums for any user who does not abide by the guidelines found here.

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Insight identifies which files and applications are safe and which are dangerous, using the combined feedback of more than 175 million Norton users.

Norton Community Watch tracks virtually every file on the Internet for comprehensive global threat monitoring.

SONAR Behavioral Protection detects the signs that a file is dangerous to proactively protect you from never-before-seen threats.

Internet Protection System scours websites and social networking sites for suspicious links and content to identify the latest social networking scams.

Download Insight and IP Address Insight prevent you from downloading files from websites that have a low reputation score within the Norton user community.

Live 24x7 Threat Monitoring is backed by a network of Norton users who serve as your own personal Neighborhood Watch group.

Scam Insight reviews a website s reputation and lets you know if it s safe to enter your personal information.

Anti-phishing Technology blocks fraudulent phishing sites set up to steal your personal information.

Identity Safe remembers, secures and automatically enters your usernames and passwords for you, so they can t be lost or stolen.

Safe Web tells you if a website is unsafe before you visit it and it s too late.

Safe Web for Facebook scans your Facebook Wall and News Feed for URLs containing security threats, such as phishing sites, malicious downloads and links to unsafe external sites.

Network mapping and monitoring shows all the devices connected to your home network, so you can spot uninvited guests using your wireless connection and/or eavesdropping on you.

Automatic, silent updates keep you one step ahead of new threats and those not yet invented

Automatic product downloads and installations when you re not using your computer ensure your protection is always up to date.

Norton Pulse updates virus definitions every 5 to 15 minutes without disrupting your work or play.

Insight Optimized File Copy identifies safe files and only scans unknown files.

Built-in Intelligence maximizes battery life by putting off non-critical activities until you are plugged in and out of full-screen mode.

Norton Management enables easy single-password access to all Norton cloud-based applications and Web properties – to update, renew, fix or install Norton – including Norton Management, Norton Anti-Theft, Norton Family and Identity Safe.

Windows 8 Compatibility touch-friendly support works equally well in keyboard and mouse environments.

Deep-cleansing tools scour and disinfect even the nastiest infections that lesser products miss

Norton Power Eraser scrubs your computer of deeply embedded, difficult-to-remove infections.

Norton Bootable Recovery Tool creates an emergency rescue CD, DVD or USB that gets your PC running like new, even if it s so infected it won t start up.

Windows 8 App remediation scans Windows 8 apps for threats and removes them.

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Operating Systems Supported

Microsoft Windows XP 32-bit Home/Professional/Tablet PC/Media Center 32-bit with Service Pack 2 or later

Microsoft Windows Vista 32-bit and 64-bit Starter/Home Basic/Home Premium/Business/Ultimate with Service Pack 1 or later

Microsoft Windows 7 32-bit and 64-bit Starter/Home Basic/Home Premium/Professional/Ultimate

Microsoft Windows 8 and Windows 8 Pro 32-bit and 64-bit

Minimum Hardware Requirements

300 MHz for Microsoft Windows XP, 1 GHz for Microsoft Windows Vista/Microsoft Windows 7/Windows 81

256 MB of RAM

300 MB of available hard disk space

CD-ROM or DVD drive if not installing via electronic download

Email scanning supported for POP3-compatible email clients

Browser Support for Phishing Protection, Safe Search, and Password Management

Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 or higher 32-bit only 1,2

Mozilla Firefox 32-bit only 2,3

Google Chrome 2,3

Browser Support for Vulnerability Protection

1Some protection features are not available in Windows 8 style browsing mode.

2As made available by Symantec within your service period.

3Supports current and the most recent previous 32-bit releases.

Norton

Small Business

Enterprise

Partners.

Antivirus Security Pro creates an identifier made up of eight letters or numbers, for example, X7gngpng. It then creates a folder with this name under the APPDATA or directory. It creates the following files in this directory:

. exe - a copy of itself

. ico - an icon file

. in or. in - a data file

. lg or. lg - a data file

. exe.manifest - a data file

serv.bat

- a MS DOS batch script that changes the registry and stops services. It might also be detected as Rogue:Win32/Winwebsec

Examples of these files are:

Antivirus Security Pro creates the following registry entry to ensure that it runs each time you start your PC:

In subkey: HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion Run

Sets value: AS2014

With data: For example, APPDATA X7gngpng X7gngpng.exe DATA

It creates a desktop shortcut with the file name desktop folder Antivirus Security Pro.lnk, which looks like the following:

It also creates a URL shortcut on the desktop with the file name desktop folder Antivirus Security Pro support.url:

It creates a shortcut in href https://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/mmpc/shared/variables.aspx startmenu target _blank Programs Antivirus Security Pro Antivirus Security Pro.lnk.

It creates a URL shortcut in href https://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/mmpc/shared/variables.aspx startmenu target _blank Programs Antivirus Security Pro Antivirus Security Pro support.url:

Payload

Displays a fake scanner

Antivirus Security Pro

dos a fake scan of your PC. It then falsely claims that a number of files on your PC are infected with malware. It tells you that you need to pay money to register the program if you want to clean the reported infections.

Some examples of the interface, fake alerts, fake scanning results, and pop-ups are shown below:

might show a user interface in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish. However, the details of the threats detected are always reported in English. The following shows the Italian version of the user interface:

Stops processes

can stop you from launching applications by blocking the process. It will show you a message that falsely claims that the process is infected. It continues to monitor all running processes, and might stop any new process when it is launched.

It will stop any process unless it has one of the following file names:

aeadisrv.exe

alg.exe

audiodg.exe

cleaner.exe

conhost.exe

csrss.exe

ctfmon.exe

dllhost.exe

driverquery.exe

dumprep.exe

dwm.exe

dwwin.exe

explorer.exe

httpd.exe

iastordatamgrsvc.exe

ie4uinit.exe

iedw.exe

ieuser.exe

iexplore.exe

iexplorer.exe

livesp.exe

lsass.exe

lsm.exe

makecab.exe

mdnsresponder.exe

mfnsvc.exe

msdtc.exe

nvscpapisvr.exe

nvsvc.exe

nvvsvc.exe

pdagent.exe

ping.exe

reg.exe

relver.exe

rundll32.exe

sc.exe

searchindexer.exe

searchprotocolhost.exe

services.exe

slsvc.exe

smss.exe

snort.exe

spoolsv.exe

svchost.exe

sysdoctor.exe

systeminfo.exe

taskeng.exe

taskhost.exe

userinit.exe

verclsid.exe

vmacthlp.exe

vmtoolsd.exe

werfault.exe

wininit.exe

winlogon.exe

winroute.exe

wmiprvse.exe

wmpnetwk.exe

wscntfy.exe

wuauclt.exe

The following processes will always be stopped; this list includes some Internet browsers:

chrome.exe

cmd.exe

firefox.exe

msconfig.exe

opera.exe

regedit.exe

safari.exe

taskmgr.exe

When it stops a process it shows an image similar to the following:

Stops and disables services

tries to stop the following services, and disable them so that they will not restart when you turn your PC on:

msmpsvc

Microsoft Security Essentials

windefend

Windows Defender

wscsvc

Windows Security Center

wuauserv

Windows Update

It also tries to disable the following service:

luafv

UAC File Virtualization Filter

Changes security settings

might try to change your PC s security settings by making a number of registry modifications.

It tries to disable various Windows Security Center notifications by making the following changes to the registry:

In subkey: HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Security Center

In subkey: HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Security Center svc

Sets value: AntiVirusDisableNotify

With data: 1

Sets value: AntiVirusOverride

Sets value: FirewallDisableNotify

Sets value: FirewallOverride

Sets value: UpdatesDisableNotify

It tries to prevent the creation of automatic System Restore points by making the following changes to the registry:

In subkey: HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Windows NT CurrentVersion SystemRestore

Sets value: RPSessionInterval

With data: 0

It tries to disable User Account Control UAC by making the following changes to the registry:

In subkey: HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion policies system

Sets value: EnableLUA

Sets value: EnableVirtualization

It tries to prevent Windows Defender from running at startup by deleting the following registry entries:

Deletes value: Windows Defender

Deletes value: MSASCui

It tries to disable System Protection by removing the following registry key:

HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Windows NT CurrentVersion SPP Clients

Closes windows

If you try to open one of the following windows or programs, or if any alerts are displayed by these programs, the rogue might try to close them:

fwcplui_class

Windows Firewall

msascui_class

wscui_class

Blocks access to websites

The rogue might try to block access to some websites, instead showing a page similar to:

Analysis by David Wood.

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Modem Blaster V 92 De5671 Driver

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Remington Rand Model 11 Typewriter Serial Numbers

1934 Remington Rand Remie Scout Serial S73XXX. Yes, I know it says quite plainly that this typewriter is a Monarch, and that threw me for a long time trying to.

Remingtons

Appendix I Typewriter Manufacture Dates and Serial Numbers SPECIFICATIONS AND DATES OF MANUFACTURE Upstrike Standards.

Img src alt The Classic

Typewriter Page border 0 width 587

presents

This is a long document, organized in chronological order. To

go directly to the information about a particular topic or

model, wait until the page finishes

loading, and then click on an item in the

following list.

2015 Richard Polt

You may quote this page, including in eBay listings,

if you credit The Classic Typewriter Page.

Model names

General information

The Remington portable typewriters of the twenties and thirties are

a familiar sight in antique shops and flea markets across the U.S.

not to mention eBay. Many of them are charming and attractive,

and there are few collectors who don t have at least one. However,

it is difficult to find information about these machines. They were

produced in bewildering variety, with a wide range of names and

minor variations. Remington s strategy for surviving the Depression

seems to have been to flood the market with every conceivable

variant of its two basic portable designs.

What follows is an attempt to systematize what I know about

portable typewriters made by Remington before World War II. This

is research in progress: I invite everyone to e-mail me with further

information about any of these typewriters, especially the less

common ones, and I ll add it to this page. I would also love to

get pictures of models I haven t pictured here, or of beautifully

colored specimens.

Some Remington portables do not carry the Remington name. In the

early 1900s, Remington gained control of the Smith Premier

typewriter company and also introduced the Monarch frontstroke

typewriter. These names were perpetuated through the 1930s, so

that there are Smith Premier and Monarch versions of many

Remington models. The Monarchs are labeled as made by the American

Writing Machine Co. Other Remington models were labeled for sale

by department stores such as Sears Roebuck the Porto-Rite, Butler Brothers, or Macy s

the Macy s machines usually have a red star on a corner and the

Macy s name on a decal in the back. Finally, Remington

manufactured noiseless portables for Underwood.

Many models had versions that were manufactured or assembled

abroad. In the listings for American models below, I mention known

foreign name variants, and discuss the foreign versions in a

separate section on foreign

variants at the bottom of this page.

Apart from personal observations, my main sources for the

information below are serial number data compiled by the Remington

patent division in the 1950s later made available to collectors

by Remington executive David P. Sheridan ; Thomas Russo s Mechanical Typewriters; Paul Lippman s American Typewriters; Touch

Method Instructor for Remington Typewriters, a pamphlet put out

by Remington in the mid-thirties; and a Remington Touch Method

Typing Instruction Book of 1940. These sources sometimes conflict

with each other. I ve taken the serial number data as most

authoritative, but I know from comparing them to my own

typewriters that they are not foolproof. Take everything below

with a grain of salt.

The typewriters are listed in the chronological order of their

introduction which is not always the same as the order of the

model numbers.. Portions of the name given in brackets do not

appear on the typewriter itself. The starting and ending dates of

the production are listed, along with serial number data and

production numbers. In May 1942, all production of Remington

typewriters ceased for the duration of the war, as factories were

converted to military purposes.

For a more month-by-month breakdown of serial numbers compiled by

Ted Munk, based primarily on the Sheridan serial number data,

visit the Remington page on The Typewriter

Database.

About serial numbers

Look for the serial number by moving the carriage to the left and

right and looking in the rear corners. Failing that, look in the

upper right corner of the slotted comb from which the keyboard

emerges.

I am too busy to look up serial numbers, so I cannot give you an

exact date for your typewriter based on the serial number.

However, for each model on this page I provide the serial number

range and the dates of manufacture, which will give you a general

idea.

You can use the serial number to determine the precise month of

manufacture only if you have a semi-portable Remington Junior

1914-1921, 1 portable,

2 portable, or a Rem-Blick. These models,

like all Remington typewriters made from August 1914 through

August 1928, use a 2-letter, 5-numeral code. The first letter

represents the model of the typewriter J for the Junior, N for

the 1 and 2, or K for the Rem-Blick. The second letter

represents the month of manufacture, according to the following

code:

P January

M February

L March

K April

X May

S June

V July

E August

D September

C October

Z November

A December

The first numeral is the last numeral of the year in which the

typewriter was made for example, 3 means 1923. The remaining

four numerals probably indicate the typewriter s sequence in the

machines manufactured that month. For example: KX80608 is the six

hundred and eighth Rem-Blick made in the month of May, 1928.

Mechanisms

Two basic mechanisms are used in Remington portables.

Geared typebar mechanism: this design relies on a simple

linkage between type lever and typebar, which mesh together like

gears. These are oblique-frontstroke typewriters: the typebars

hit the platen at a spot between the front and the top of the

platen.

Noiseless mechanism: in noiseless portables, the typebar is

prevented from slamming against the platen at full force; the

momentum of a small weight brings it the last few millimeters to

the front of the platen. It s not truly noiseless, but it is

quieter than a conventional typebar typewriter.

Although Remington promotional literature boasts that both of these

mechanisms were engineered, developed, pioneered by Remington, the

geared linkage was actually introduced by Wellington P. Kidder in

1891 on his Franklin

typewriter, and the noiseless technology was first used by the

Noiseless Typewriter Company, which came out with the Noiseless Portable

in 1921 and was bought in 1924 by Remington. The Noiseless Portable

was invented by George G. Going, who went on to work for Remington.

Locking and unlocking the carriage

When you find a Remington portable, the carriage may appear to be

frozen. It has been locked in place for carrying. Try to release the

carriage by holding the carriage with your left hand and pulling out

on the right platen knob with your right hand. If that doesn t work,

there should be a small upright lever on the left end of the platen

that will release the carriage if you pull it slightly to the left

and then to the back. In order to relock the carriage, find a lever

on the left end of the carriage which, when pulled forward, lets the

carriage slide freely into the middle of the typewriter and click

there; you may then need to push the right platen knob into the

platen in order to lock the carriage. This may be necessary in order

to fit the typewriter into its case.

Remington Junior Apr. 1914-1921

Serial numbers: 2-letter,

5-numeral code beginning with J

Number made: 10,000. my rough guess

Not a true portable but a luggable typewriter, this simplified

writing machine had three banks of keys and shift keys only on the

left. It is smaller, it is lighter, it is designed for the

simpler uses, says a 1915 ad. It was manufactured in the Smith

Premier factory in Syracuse, N.Y. It is similar to the Century 10

typewriter, marketed around 1919-1921 by the American Writing

Machine Company, which was controlled by Remington. Not to be

confused with the later

Remington Junior portable. This model was not a market

success.

Remington Portable 1 Oct. 1920-Jan. 1925

5-numeral code beginning with N

Number made: 300,000.

These

little machines were marketed aggressively and were a great

success. They were the first truly portable typewriters with

four-bank keyboards, and in this category they had no competition

until Royal and Underwood introduced four-bank portables in 1926.

The folding-typebar mechanism raises the typebars to a 45-degree

angle, the printing position, by means of a lever on the right

side of the typewriter. The typebars must be lowered again when

the typewriter is returned to its case. The carrying case is

sometimes wood or metal covered in leather or imitation leather;

usually as on all subsequent Remington portables, it is wood

covered in black cloth. In 1924 the price of the Remington

Portable was 60. It was sold in France as the Smith Premier

Portative.

According to vol. I, no. 1 August 2, 1926 of The Remport,

a newsletter for sellers of Remington portables, The Remington

Portable was first exhibited at the New York Business Show in

October, 1920. Its manufacture began shortly thereafter but for

many months only a limited number of machines were available for

delivery. the first dealership contracts of record were

entered during September, 1921. Thanks to Ed Neuert for

providing this publication.

For almost a year, then, production was limited and

experimental. This is why you should keep your eyes open for a very

early 1, such as the one pictured above on the left. It

appears at first glance to be just like the later 1 on the right,

but notice that it has no right shift key. In fact, the early 1 has

many features which the company soon changed. The new features were

phased in beginning around June or July 1921, and then became

standard on all Remington portables. Today it is quite difficult to

find a specimen that has all the early features. Early machines were

also often rebuilt with new parts, making it difficult to be know

whether they were originally present. What follows is my best guess

about the order in which the early features were changed. I thank

Mark Adams for sharing his research on this model.

The base of the very early carrying case has studs that pass

through holes in the body of the typewriter, and the machine is

attached to the base with cotter pins that pass through holes in

the studs; flat springs, one in the back of the base and two on

the sides, help to hold the typewriter in place. There is also a

lip that runs around the edges of the base. Later machines

starting January 1921 or earlier are simply screwed to the

base, and the base is flat.

The early type guide is a rectangular piece of metal with one

rectangular opening. This was changed to a more A-shaped piece

of metal with two openings. Still later, the piece was widened

slightly and the teeth that guide the type were made slightly

smaller.

The early shift lock is separate from the shift key, and has

to be depressed after shifting; shift lock is connected to shift

key on later machines.

The paper table on earlier machines is curved; on later ones,

flat and shaped differently see pictures above.

There is no right-hand carriage release lever on early

machines.

Early machines have only two screws visible at the very top of

each side panel. Two more screws are visible on later machines,

below the top screws and slightly towards the front of the

machine. Still later, two more screws are visible. Mark Adams

reports that all screws are present in the original model,

though hidden by the external frame. These screws attach to the

internal frame, which holds the typewriter s workings. This

dual-frame assembly ensured that the external frame would not be

damaged during production. Once completed, workers attached the

external frame. Subsequent openings are likely pass-thrus for

manufacturing purposes.

Later machines include rabbit ears behind the paper table

which can be extended for further support of the paper; early

ones do not.

The early machine has no automatic ribbon reverse. When the

ribbon reverser was added, the construction of the ribbon guide

was improved; it originally was held together with a cotter pin.

To inspect this detail, view the machine from the back and look

at the devices that guide the ribbon on its way into or out of

the spools.

On the early machines, the paper release lever is pulled

forward to release the paper; later, it is pushed backward.

According to Remington serial number records, a longer

carriage was introduced with NC10474 October 1921.

Early machines have a left shift key only. This is the most

obvious sign of an early Remington Portable. Mine has no slot

for a right shift key. However, I have also seen a Remington

Portable from 1921 with a slot for a right shift key, but no key

there. According to Remington serial number records, the right

shift key was introduced in March, 1922 NL20211. Note:

machines exported to Europe often had a shift key only on the

left, even into the 1930s.

The printing point on early machines is directly on top of the

platen; the later design moves the printing point slightly

toward the front of the platen. Accordingly, the early shift

mechanism moves the carriage backwards horizontally; later

mechanisms raise it up slightly as well as moving it backwards.

The early ribbon vibrator is nickeled and roughly n-shaped on

each side; the later ribbon vibrator is black and roughly

U-shaped on each side.

The variable line spacer a lever on the left side that

allows the platen to be turned to any position, instead of

forcing it to move in fixed increments is longer on later

machines.

The manual ribbon reverser/spool turner on both machines is a

shaft that protrudes from the sides. This shaft originally ended

in a flat, disc-shaped knob; the later knob is bigger, an

elongated cylinder rather than a disc.

The line gauge or aligning scale -- a triangular piece of

metal that indicates the bottom of the current line -- is

directly above the printing point on early machines, and was

later moved to the right. On early machines, the shape of the

aligning scale can vary: the opening can be either a plain

triangle, or a sort of upside-down, fat T.

The platen knob is thinner on early machines.

On early machines, the paper is advanced with a pinch-lever

mechanism; later machines have a vertical lever which both

returns the carriage and advances the paper. This is a big

improvement. One machine from August 1924 has been found which

still has a pinch lever, but I think by this time most had a

vertical lever.

Early ribbon spools are locked into place with a catch

attached to the axle; later machines have no such catch, but the

spool is held onto the axle by a tab attached to the ribbon

guide.

The paper release lever on the right side of the carriage is

flat on early machines; it is a bent rod later -- an odd

development, because the later design looks more primitive.

The early line spacing selector is a bent piece of sheet

metal; later it is a knob.

The early space bar is a little narrower.

An unusual color variant of the 1 is black on top and gold on

the sides. Before colored enamel paints were available, this was

as radical a departure from basic black as you could get. Decals

may or may not be present. Pictured: NM11229, made Feb. 1921.

A further variation reported by Mark Adams is grayish-green, with

green keytops. Pictured:

Another machine to look out for is the Remington Portable 1

DeLuxe. It has an ivory-tone finish and comes in a brown

leather case. Available in very limited numbers around 1924, it

sold for 75. Pictured: NZ30670, made Nov. 1923, courtesy of Jim

Dax.

NZ14279Z, with a German keyboard, has an unexplained Z at the end

of the serial number.

Remington Portable 2 Feb. 1925-Dec. 1928

Serial numbers: 2-letter, 5-numeral code

beginning with N Feb. 1925-August 1928 ; V100000-V131518

September-December 1928

Number made: 400,000.

I have also had reports of 2 portables numbered V139673, V150477,

V158799, V171120,  and V188693. All are in Europe; I suspect

the official Remington serial records cited above cover only the

US-sold machines.

The model number is not marked on these machines; typewriters marked

Remington 2 or Rem 2 are probably name variants of the Compact.

The differences between a 1 and a 2 are not difficult to find when

you know what to look for:

The panel that raises and supports the typebars is thinner on

the 1, and you can easily see under it; the 2 panel is wider,

and you cannot easily see under it. This makes the machine

sturdier and protects the works from dust.

The 2 has typebar guards -- hooked pieces of metal that curve

around the leftmost and rightmost typebars.

The carriage on the 1 is just wide enough to accept an 8-1/2

inch sheet of paper; the 2 carriage is wide enough to accept a

9-1/2 inch business envelope.

The 1 is normally black, with a red circular decal on the

left top showing an understroke Remington 2 and the traditional

Remington slogan, To Save Time is to Lengthen Life ; 2 comes

in various colors and color combinations collect em all. and

usually simply reads Remington on its paper table. However,

early 2 s may have the same decal as the 1.

No. 2 portables were produced both in basic black and in a

number of appealing color combinations; the copywriters had a

field day inventing names for them thanks to Steve Maloney for

the ad. British name variant:

Smith Premier. French name variant: Contin. Contin was a French

typewriter manufacturer that apparently purchased some Remingtons

to sell under the Contin name.

Download a user s manual for this machine

here.

Rem-Blick Dec. 1927-Sept.. 1928

5-numeral code beginning with K

Number made: 6000.

This typewriter was a clone of the Blickensderfer 5, which came on the market

around 1895. Remington bought the Blickensderfer tools and dies

from the Roberts Typewriter Company in 1926. Roberts had bought

Blick out in 1919 but only made the Blick 90, a typebar machine

designed by Lyman Roberts and licensed to Blickensderfer for

manufacture. Most Rem-Blicks had a QWERTY keyboard, but a few

specimens resurrected Blickensderfer s favored Scientific

keyboard with DHIATENSOR on the bottom row. A less-common name

variant, apparently used in

Britain, is Baby Rem. An even rarer name variant is

S.P.-Blick S.P. for Smith Premier. The Rem-Blick was

advertised by Sears in 1929 under its own name, for 22.50, and in

1930 under the name The Blick, for 19.75. The earliest specimen

known to me dates from February 1928, but Remington records state

that the machine was first manufactured in December 1927. The

latest known specimen dates from September 1928. June 1928 was

apparently the peak of production; it is the only month in which I

know that over 1000 machines were made.

Remington Portable 3 Dec. 1928-June 1938

Serial numbers: V131519-V431105; VPPA-VPPDDHH all-letters code used

only in January 1929

Number made: approximately 300,000. Most were made before 1932.

When the company figured out that its portables could type

without raising the typebars to a 45-degree angle, the 3 was

introduced. This is much like the 2

except that there is no rising panel or side lever. The typebars

rest at an angle of only 15 degrees or so, and are surrounded by a

metal lip marked Remington or, rarely, Remington 3. This

typewriter introduced the paragraph key -- a key that

automatically advances the carriage five spaces labeled Self

Starter on some models and specimens. The machine comes in

various attractive colors and color combinations, such as this

blue/turquoise specimen. Its original price was 60. British name variants:

Remington Home Portable, Smith Premier Home Portable, Smith

Premier Chum Portable. I have had a report of one 3 which types

in capitals only V341853, November 1930. The December, 1933 American

Boy-Youth Companion advertises a Remington Special

Portable for 19.95 that also looks like a caps-only 3. See the

information above about the 2

for details on some 2 portables that have serial numbers within

the supposed 3 range.

Remington Compact Portable July 1930-Feb.

1938

Serial numbers: C20426-C65873

Number made: 45,448

The Compact Portable is essentially a 2. The serial numbers of these

machines begin with a C. The typewriter often has a nickeled strip

running above the keyboard, and the panel that raises the typebars

is textured. Many of these typewriters were sold through

department stores such as Sears. They may or may not be marked

Compact. Name variant: Monarch. British name variant: Smith

Premier Compact Portable may not have nickeled strip.

Remington Noiseless Portable

Aug. 1931-Oct. 1941

Serial numbers: N10000.-N127879.

Number made: probably 117,880. Most were made before 1938. Only

one, the very last, was made in all of 1941.

This was one of the most successful models, commercially and

aesthetically. Its distinctive design feature is the rounded panel

above the keyboard, accented with a horizontal ridge that makes a

tasteful V at its very front. N13500-N127879 are the serial

numbers in Remington s official records, but the earliest machine

reported to me is N10085; it seems plausible that serials started

at N10000. Earlier specimens are marked Remington Noiseless

Portable below the spacebar, whereas later ones are marked this

way on the paper table and say Remington below the spacebar.

Earlier ones also have black plastic keys, like the model 7, whereas later ones have

glass-topped keys. Late RNPs may have full-sized carriage return

levers and touch regulators to the right of the keyboard. Usually

the RNP is black, but with a good deal of luck it can be found in

two-tone green, maroon, or two-tone blue. These fancy colored

machines may come in deluxe, leather-covered cases with

compartments for stationery and supplies. One sometimes sees RNPs

on which the back spacer and margin release keys protrude through

the plate behind the keyboard; this allows for two more character

keys to be added to the keyboard. Such machines, in my experience,

turn up in Europe. Probably Remington made them for export, so

that they could handle accents and other characters for European

languages. The original price of the RNP was 92.50, but during

the first few months of production the price went down to 69.50.

In 1935 it cost 67.50. Name variants: Monarch, Smith Premier

Noiseless. Thanks to Charles Gu and mytypewriter.com

for the pictures.

Remington Noiseless Model Seven Nov. 1931-March

1941

Serial numbers: H10000-H63756

Number made: 53,757

The Model Seven, the big brother of the Noiseless Portable,

has a full-sized paper table, a tabulator, black plastic keytops,

and a carriage return lever that is long and horizontal rather

than short and vertical. My first typewriter was one of these, and

I still enjoy using it. Its original price was 105, reduced to

72 by 1935. The price in 1940 was 70.75 cash or 75.75 in

installments. Triple line spacing was introduced with H25728 July

1933. Some earlier specimens have bigger feet than later ones, so

they stand about 1 cm taller. Early machines also differ from

later ones in some other small ways: for instance, the early

machines have smaller, more rounded spacebars, and a simpler

scale/cardholder in front of the platen. They may also come in

cases that include a leather strap to hold the typewriter in

place. There are at least two decal schemes: the one shown above,

with Remington 7 Noiseless on the paper table, and another

scheme with Remington Noiseless on the paper table and Model

Seven on the front of the machine. A rare color variant is

two-tone green. I once saw a 7 covered in alligator skin. Almost

surely an aftermarket refinement. It was found in Las Vegas -- of

course. Name variants: Monarch, Monarch 71, Smith Premier 71.

The Seven was revived after the war 1945-49, with wrinkle paint

and other small stylistic changes; the postwar serial numbers,

H64000-H193575 according to Remington records, are not included in

the total made as listed above. Some postwar Model Sevens were

also assembled in France from US-made parts; their serial numbers

go even higher than those listed in the Remington records. The

latest machine known to me is H198804 tan paint, UK keyboard.

Remington Portable 4 Nov. 1931-Jan. 1934

Serial numbers: V500000-V502881

Number made: 2,882. Almost all were made from Nov. 1931 to Jan.

1932.

This is like the 3, but has a

true tabulator instead of a paragraph five-space key. It cost

65, 5 more than the 3. Pictured: V502012, courtesy of Chris and

Gary Josey.

Porto-Rite 1931.-April 1934

Serial numbers: SR5000.-SR16405. Remington records start with

SR14972, but the lowest serial number I have seen is SR5145.

Number made: 11,500.

These Remingtons were marketed by Sears Roebuck; their serial

numbers begin with SR. Most Porto-Rites are identical to the 2, but some are identical to the

3. They come both in black and

in colors. Normally they are marked Porto-Rite, but I know of

one specimen marked Remington, looking exactly like a two-tone

green 2, despite its SR

serial number. The catalogue of the Dietz typewriter collection

at the Milwaukee Public Museum shows a Porto-Rite that may not be

a Remington product at all. Sears may have sold several different

makes under the name.

Underwood Noiseless 77 Feb. 1932-March 1940 and Underwood Noiseless Portable

1937.-March 1942

Serial numbers: 543150-969800., 2969801.-2969934, 1040000.-1040296

Noiseless 77, P1000000.-P1410028 Portable. Serial numbers of the

77 include a Q at the beginning starting with Q968395.

Number made: 427,081. Noiseless 77, 410,029. Portable

Although they re called Underwoods, these machines are identical

twins of the Remington Noiseless

Model Seven and Remington Noiseless

Portable, respectively. A former Underwood employee has

reported that they were made in the Remington factory by

arrangement with Underwood. Serial number records are confusing

and incomplete. I won t bore you with the details; the numbers

above are the best sense I can make of the available records, but

they seem surprisingly high to me these machines are common, but

not that common. Some Underwood Noiseless 77 machines

were outfitted with at least two variants of the Dvorak keyboard

in 1933, presumably as part of Dr. August Dvorak s efficiency

experiments. Rare color variants of the 77 are maroon and two-tone

green. The 77 was revived in 1946-48 serials 1502099-163900 ;

these machines are not included in my production totals above.

Later 77 s are finished in wrinkle paint.

Butler Brothers Feb. 1932.-Nov. 1933

Serial numbers: BB1000.-BB4103

Number made: 3104. see below

This model was sold by the Butler Bros. department store, much as

the Porto-Rite was

sold by Sears. It seems to have been nearly identical to the 2 portable except for its BB

serial number and a tabulator. Collector Jim Dax reports that

BB2084 is just like a two-tone green 2; I have also seen BB3292,

which is also like a two-tone green 2, with a black paper table

and a tab key. Phil Garr s BB2203 looks like a black 2 with a tab

key see picture above, as does BB2301. None of these serial

numbers are included in the range given by Remington

BB3500-BB4103. It it is a plausible guess that serial numbers

would begin with BB1000. A Butler Brothers catalogue advertisement

kindly provided for me by Thomas A. Russo pictures a Remington

that looks like a 1 and says

that it is available in black, blue, red, red and white, and green

and white; a druggists model is also available, with characters

used in writing prescriptions.

Remie Scout Model April 1932-Nov.

1934

Serial numbers: S10006-S26600 both single and double case ;

S26661-S34731 single case ; S60000-S75588 double case

Number made: roughly 16,000 single-case, 24,000 double-case. It is

not clear how the double-case serial numbers are divided between

versions a and b as described below.

It s a confusing task to sort out the varieties of this portable

with the cute and perky name. In essence it is much like the portable 2, but it lacks some

major conveniences of the 2, such as adjustable margins. It comes

in four versions:

a An upper- and lower-case typewriter, including the front

portion of the frame. Ernst Martin seems to refer to this model

as the Scout Senior. Its price was 34.75. Lowercase letters

are sometimes used on the keys of this model, even though it

types in both upper and lower case. Often this model has a shift

key only on the left side, but it may also have shift keys on

both left and right. 

b An upper- and lower-case typewriter with shift key only on

the left, lacking the front portion of the frame. On these

machines, such as the red machine above, the keys are labeled

rather charmingly with lowercase letters. They are finished in a

variety of colors. Both this version and the first may use a

distinctive sans-serif typeface.

c A caps-only typewriter lacking the front portion of the

frame. This version cost 19.75 and was advertised as the

child s typewriter. Was it the Scout Junior. It comes in

various colors. Two specimens labeled Higbee Portable are

known.

d A caps-only typewriter including the front portion of the

frame. The only two specimens I have seen are labeled Remington

Scout and made in Canada; one is red on top, black on the

sides; the other is all light blue.

Name variants: Monarch, Monarch Pioneer, Pioneer, Remington Pioneer

not to be confused with other

types of Pioneer., Higbee Portable type c above. Canadian name variants:

Canadian Pioneer, Canadian Scout, Remington Scout. Some caps-only

Scouts were sold by Macy s: one type b made in September 1933 is

labeled on the back Made for R.H.Macy Co. Inc. New York by

Remington Rand ; another, made in February, 1934, is labeled Macy s

Portable and has a red star on the top, to the left of the

typebars.

For more research on the Remie Scouts, visit

this

page by Alan Seaver.

Remington Portable Model 5T Aug. 1932-Apr. 1939

Serial numbers: V525000-V552237

Number made: 27,238

The model 5T has a true tabulator instead of the

five-space or paragraph key found on its near-twin, the model 5. It cost no more than

the regular model 5: 65. Name variant: Monarch. The specimen

pictured above was made in Canada.

Remington Portable Model 5 boxy Oct.

1932-Aug. 1939

Serial numbers: V10030-V10151, V600000-V607103, V625000-V759529

Number made: 141,755. Most were made before 1938.

This typewriter is similar to the 3,

but looks more solid and has a broader, boxier shape. Remington

literature describes the 5 as the world s best seller, and it

was certainly an enduring member of the Remington line. Its

original price was 65. Name variants: Remington Monarch, Monarch

5, Smith Premier Portable Model 35. Sold in France as the Rem

35. This typewriter is occasionally found with a rounded paper

table marked Remington 5, as on the streamlined 5. In

another unusual variant, the top plate of the body between the

keyboard and the keys is painted blue. V10030-V10151 were made

without side guides and paragraph key, to retail the same as the

regular Model 5, but sold to Dealers at 1.25 less. Of these 122

machines, two were made in August 1935, 119 in September, and one

in October. A strange little experiment.

Remington Noiseless 8 Oct. 1932-May 1941

Serial numbers: E11100-E38598

Number made: 27,499. Most were made before 1939.

This curious typewriter is virtually identical to the noiseless 7, mechanically. The

design looks like a 7 with angular, faceted surfaces. The 8 is

much beefier than the 7 and has an extra-wide carriage, accepting

paper 11.25 wide. Remington called it the desk model, and said

it was for the typewriter user for whom a portable is too small

and a large machine too expensive. But it is still light enough

to be carried, and comes in a case with handle. For this reason,

and because it is essentially a portable mechanism in an

office-sized body, I include it on this page. Its price was

originally 105, reduced to 79.50 by 1935. In 1940 the cash price

was still 79.50; installment price was 84.50. According to

Remington records, triple line spacing was introduced with E17631

Feb. 1933, but E12835 Oct. 1932 in a collector s hands already

has this feature. A touch regulator was introduced with E37745

Apr. 1938. Name variants: Monarch Noiseless 8, Smith Premier No.

8, Smith Premier Noiseless 81. Usually this typewriter has an

embossed Remington name on its paper table, but the paper table

may also have a Remington Noiseless decal. For more information

about this machine, follow

this link.

Remington Junior Jan. 1933-March 1940

Serial numbers: S150300-S283163. SD machines, in the same series,

include a backspacer.

Number made: 132,863

This machine not to be confused with the Remington Junior of 1914

is almost identical to the 3.

In fact, some Juniors simply read Remington, and look almost

exactly like the 3. However, the Junior is a simpler machine.

Remington advertising literature tells us: Stripped of some of

the conveniences of higher priced models, it retains all that are

essential to first-class typing. Especially suitable for the use

of children and students, for social correspondence and home

work. The conveniences that the Junior lacks but the 3 has

include a two-color ribbon and a right-hand carriage release

lever. Its price was 37.50 in some ads, 39.50 in others.

According to Remington records, the SD version of the Junior,

with a backspacer, was introduced in January 1938. However, a

backspacer is present on at least some S not SD machines,

such as S212927 German keyboard. Some Juniors are found with

larger, rounded paper tables reading Remington in Art Deco

lettering. Ernst Martin claims that a version of the Junior wrote

in capital letters only, but I have not seen any evidence for

this. Name variants: Monarch, Smith Premier Junior pictured:

S161376, with lowercase letters on the keys, courtesy of Flip

Woltering. Monarch S153594 has a sans-serif typeface more

commonly found on the Remie

Scout.

Remington Rand Model 1 Feb. 1933-March

Serial numbers: P60000-P68715 no tabulator; last

made Aug. 1934, P10000-P59999, P100000-P145549 with tabulator

Number made: 8,716 no tabulator, 95,550 with tabulator

This is much like the 7 and 8 noiseless machines, but its

shape is somewhere in between the curviness of the 7 and the

angularity of the 8. Remington documents call it the noisy

noiseless. Even though it looks very much like a noiseless machine,

it doesn t have the small weights that press the noiseless typebars

against the platen, and the typebars are allowed to hit the platen

with enough force that they make a clackety-clack. This may actually

have been an advantage in the market, as some consumers were

disturbed by the quietness of the noiseless machines, and would

pound the keys harder and harder, trying to get the familiar pecking

noise. A 1932

patent

by James H. Rand of Remington Rand explains: In the operation

of noiseless typewriting machines, there is a pronounced

psychological effect on some operators, especially those who have

previously operated noisy machines. This is due to the fact that in

operating a noiseless machine the operator hears no noise, and the

touch on such machines is usually much lighter than in noisy

machines. Therefore, the operator has the mental attitude that she

is not writing or obtaining any result from the operation of the

keys, or that she is not attaining her usual speed, due almost

wholly to the entire absence of the usual clatter to which she is

accustomed. It is difficult in some instances to overcome this

purely mental attitude, or to convince the operator that she is in

fact writing at possibly an even greater speed than she ordinarily

attains on a noisy machine, and with the expenditure of less

effort.

A 1937 Remington pamphlet describes this typewriter as an all new

writing machine featuring the Remington Speed Mechanism -- but

never explains what this mechanism is. Presumably it is simply the

standard noiseless mechanism, which makes jamming unlikely and thus

allows one to type fast.

With tabulator, this typewriter originally sold for 65; without,

for 60 in some ads or 62.50 in others. Specimens from

1938-1942 may include a touch regulator. Name variants: Monarch,

Smith Premier Model 11. The Remington Rand Model 1 is referred to as

the Speed Portable in Remington literature, but I have not seen

machines with this name on them. The specimen above that is marked

with a star is labeled R.H. Macy Co. on the back, and was

sold at Macy s. Ron Babb has found an early Remington Rand Model 1

with a Dvorak keyboard. Some very early examples of this model I ve

seen a photo of P60115 have a decal in front that reads Model

One instead of Model 1.

Remington 9 Feb. 1933-Feb. 1941

Serial numbers: F10000-F16838 and beyond. see below

Number made: 6,839 or more; see below. Most were made before 1938.

Described in Remington literature as twin to the Model 8 but not noiseless -- a

general all-purpose typewriter. In other words, this is

mechanically like the noisy noiseless Remington Rand 1, but it

has the large size and angular design of the Noiseless 8. The Remington on

its paper table is a decal, rather than embossed as on the 8. It

sold for 92 originally, reduced to 72 by 1935. A touch regulator

was introduced on F16713 May 1938. A Swedish collector tells me

he owns number F17489, which is 651 machines higher than recorded

by Remington and would bring production to at least 7,490

machines. Nevertheless, this remains a difficult machine to find.

Remington Noiseless Junior September

1933

Serial numbers: B10000-B11400

Number made: 1,401

This model is similar to the Remington Noiseless

Portable, but has its own distinctive styling: a smooth arc

crossing the entire front of the typewriter, with no decorations.

It has no backspacer, tabulator, left platen knob, or ribbon color

selector. Its price was 57.50 -- significantly below the 69.50

of the Remington Noiseless Portable. Just a few were made before

the model was mysteriously aborted. Remington records say: Stock

shipped to field Sept. 1933 ahead of time. Prices released

12/2/33. Nov. 15, 1935 instructed all offices to ship remaining

machines to Who. Port. Wholesale Portable. Dept., N.Y.C. thus

clearing field of all machines. Some Noiseless Juniors were

labeled Underwood, although these machines do not appear in the

official Remington records. The specimens known to me have serial

numbers 622656, 622789, 622802, and 630099. Finally, one mystery

machine has been found with a Noiseless 7 mechanism and serial

number, but a Noiseless Junior shell.

Remington 3B July 1935-Dec. 1935

Serial numbers: C100000-C105075

Number made: 5,076

A strange and lovely little beast with 45-degree typebars, a

three-and-a-half-row keyboard, and minimal parts no backspace

key, no shift lock, no margin release key, no tabulator or

paragraph key, no two-color ribbon. Its cost was 31.25. Even

within this small number of machines, there are variations.

Earlier ones come with a paperboard lid, black with silver stripes

on the top and sides, marked Remington in red across the front

see picture, courtesy of John Schag ; there is no latch on the

base, which is cloth-covered wood. Later ones such as the machine

pictured on the left come in a standard case all cloth-covered

wood with latch. Very early specimens may be marked Remington 3

Bank, showing the origin of the model designation even though

technically, it is a 3.5-bank keyboard ; pictured is C100072,

courtesy of Gigi Clark. For more information, visit this page.

Remington 5 streamlined Dec.

1935-Dec. 1940

Serial numbers: V825000-V980468

Number made: 155,469. Most were made before 1939.

This typewriter is mechanically the same as the boxy Model 5, but its body

looks quite different: it is an example of the streamlined

industrial design of the later Art Deco, or Art Moderne, period.

In general, typewriter manufacturers didn t go very far in this

trend that was taking other office and kitchen appliances by

storm. But the 5 is a tasteful, striking example of typewriter

streamlining. The shape was probably created by noted designer

Oscar Bruno Bach to judge from references in a 1940 Time magazine

on Bach and his 1957 New York Times obituary, provided to me by Ed

Neuert. A company pamphlet says, The modern attractive lines of

this new Remington brings sic 20th Century style and grace to

the world s most famous portable typewriter make it a

desirable addition to any home surrounding. Note the big, massive

sturdiness of this new Remington Self-starter portable, its

graceful lines and glistening finish. The scale is red on most

specimens, but black on some. An unusual variation has tan or

black paint and a color-coded keyboard for teaching touch typing;

another unusual paint treatment is dark and light maroon. It sold

for 49.50 when introduced. Early specimens have the traditional

Remington decal instead of the Deco lettering shown here. This

machine is essentially the same as the later version with a

touch regulator and the still later Remington Standard Model 5

and Deluxe Model 5.

The Streamliner of

1941 is also quite similar to the streamlined 5. Name variants:

Monarch 5, Remington Portable Super Model, Smith Premier Portable

Model 35. British name

variant: Remington Victor S Portable.

Remington 5 T-SS March 1936-Aug. 1938

Serial numbers: V800051-V806711

Number made: 6,661

This is like the streamlined

5 but includes a tabulator and a couple of other

refinements, such as both upper and lower ruled tab bars on the

rear of the machine. It is marked Remington Portable Model 5T.

Essentially, this machine is the 5T

in a streamlined style this may explain the designation 5T-SS.

The specimen on the left has a German keyboard courtesy of Phil

Garr. On the right is a European name variant, the Smith Premier

Portable Model 35T serial number V800428, courtesy of Flip

Woltering. The Remington Victor T portable see foreign variants is the

same machine with a different serial number range. Remington

records include this statement on the T-SS serial number page:

BT prefix means foreign model sold to some extent in domestic

field December, 1940.

Pioneer / Monarch Pioneer 3.5 row

keyboard Oct. 1937-Jan. 1938

Serial numbers: C106000-C123499

Number made: 17,500

The Pioneer name was apparently reserved for embarrassingly basic

typewriters. The first type has a sheet-metal body painted in

wrinkle paint, and a three-and-a-half-row keyboard that it shares

with the Remington 3B, with

shift key only on the left. These machines lack even a carriage

return lever -- you have to turn the platen knob and pull the

platen by the knob. Their price was 19.95, 21.45 with case.

Monarch 101 Dec. 1937-Apr. 1942

Serial numbers: A10000-A11077

Number made: 1,078

This rare model is a bulbous office-sized machine that uses the

noiseless portable mechanism. Remington records say it was also

referred to as Model 5 1/2.

Pioneer / Monarch Pioneer 4A Apr.

1938-Dec. 1938

Serial numbers: CA131000-CA133999

Number made: 3,000. see note below

This Pioneer has no shift key and types only in sans-serif

capital letters. It is referred to as the 4A model in Remington

records. Its price was 15.95. Like the Bantam and the Cadet, it was sold by the

General Shaver Corporation, a division of Remington Rand.

Remington records call the Bantam the model 4, this version of

the Pioneer the 4A, and the Cadet the 4B. They all had the

same sheet-metal body.

Note on serial numbers for the Bantam, Cadet and Pioneer 4A:

according to Remington records, these three machines were in same

series but each had a different letter prefix. This creates

some uncertainty about the number produced. The serial number data

are as follows:

Pioneer 4A: CA131000-CA133999 April 1938-Dec. 1938

Cadet: CB125000-CB185999 April 1938-February 1939 ;

CB256000-CB262188 latter part of 1940, including December.

Between October and November 1938, serial numbers leap from

CB129005 to CB161493. I have also gotten reports of Cadets

numbered CB186059 and CB186206 the latter made in Canada.

Bantam: C130039-C158998 May 1938-Dec. 1938. Between July and

August 1938, serial numbers leap from C130176 to C140214.

It seems reasonable to assume that even though these models were in

same series, Remington avoided overlapping their numbers, and thus

skipped some numbers for the Cadet and the Bantam in order to leave

those numbers open for other models. It also seems fair to assume

that when Remington skipped some numbers, they would skip up to some

nice, round number. I have had a report of a Bantam numbered

C130014, indicating that some machines were made before the first

number listed in Remington records, C130039. C130000 seems like a

reasonable starting point. These assumptions yield the following guesses,

listed in order of serial numbers:

CB125000-CB129005: Cadet

C130000-C130176: Bantam

CA131000-CA133999: Pioneer 4A

C140000-C158998: Bantam

CB160000-CB185999: Cadet

CB256000-CB262188: Cadet

I am not sure this is right; I do not know what to make of those

serial number sequences ending suspiciously with 998 and 999.

But if my guesses are right, they yield production numbers of 36,194

or more for the Cadet, 19,176 for the Bantam, and 3,000 for the

Pioneer 4A.

Pioneer no front frame

See Remie Scout.

Cadet 4B April 1938-Dec. 1940

Serial numbers: CB125000-CB185999 April 1938-February 1939 ;

CB256000-CB262188 latter part of 1940, including December. I

have also gotten a report of a Cadet numbered CB186059, and another

made in Canada numbered CB186206.

Number made: 36,194 or more. see

note

A nearly minimal typewriter, with shift key only on the left. It has

double-case letters, but only single-case number keys. It cost

19.75. Remington records refer to it as the model 4B. Like the Bantam and the 4A version of

the Pioneer, it was sold

by the General Shaver Corporation, a division of Remington Rand.

Bantam May 1938-Dec. 1938

Serial numbers: C130039-C158998 according to Remington records; but

I have had a report of a machine numbered C130014

Number made: 19,176. see note

The keys of this child s typewriter are color-coded to teach touch

typing. It types in sans-serif capital letters only, plus period,

comma, and question mark. It is marked A Rem-Rand Product. This

was the cheapest of all Remington portables, selling for 10.95

12.45 with carrying case. Like other inexpensive Remington

portables of this time, its has a sheet-metal body and it is painted

in wrinkle paint. Like the Cadet

and the 4A version of the

Pioneer, the Bantam was sold by the General Shaver

Corporation, a division of Remington Rand.

Remington Premier May 1938-June 1940

Serial numbers: P150000-P182548

Number made: 32,549 Remington Model 1 and Premier combined

This typewriter is essentially a Remington Rand Model 1

without a tabulator. It has the shape of the Remington Rand Model

1, but is finished in wrinkle paint instead of black enamel. It

cost 57.50. Because the serial numbers are shared with the Remington Model 1, it is

impossible to determine how many of each model were made.

Remington Model 1 June 1938-Nov. 1940

Serial numbers: PD150000-PD182548

Number made: 32,549 this model and Premier combined

Confusingly enough, this Remington 1 is not at all the same as

the true first Remington portable;

and it is subtly different from the Remington Rand Model 1.

While the Remington Rand Model 1 has a slightly faceted front, the

Remington Model 1 has a smoothly curved front. It includes a touch

regulator. Its keys may be either solid black plastic or black

with metal rings. Its price in 1940 was 59.50 cash or 64.50 in

installments. Because the serial numbers are shared with the Premier, it is impossible

to determine how many of each model were made. 

Remette / Rem-ette July 1938-Apr. 1942

Serial numbers: CR130000-CR322223

Number made: 192,224

This homely writing machine uses the same geared typebar

mechanism as the portable 3

and 5. Its body is sheet

metal painted with gray or black wrinkle paint. It originally cost

29.75, and Remington records say it was introduced to meet

Corona Zephyr, another cheap machine. Some more cryptic comments

from the Remington records: Serial with CQ means quintuple

keyboard; CR210125 first machine with ratchet release lever.

CQ254462 includes 3 dead keys for accents. European name

variant: Smith Premier Primette. Two special versions of the

Remette were made for the 1939 World s Fair: 1 World s Fair

blue paint with an orange stripe and the fair s logo in a corner;

2 black paint, no stripe, with the logo.

Remington 5 streamlined with touch

regulator July 1938-Feb. 1942

Serial numbers: B25000-B99951

Number made: 74,952

This variant of the streamlined

Model

5 includes a touch regulator on a semicircular dial directly

above the keyboard which varies the force with which the typebars

strike the platen. Its price in 1940 was 49.50 cash, or 54.50 in

installments. It is normally finished in wrinkle paint, but the

unusual specimen at right is marked U.S. Navy and painted in

glossy light gray paint. Paul Thekan writes, These typewriters

were used for copying Morse code from radio as well as voice

traffic. The type is upper case only, no lower case, and the

zero key has a slash through the zero to denote it is a zero and

not the letter O. The Army also used such typewriters. This

machine is closely related to the Remington Standard Model 5

British name variant:

Smith Premier 5.

Remington DeLuxe Junior July

1938-July 1941.

Serial numbers: SD268298-SD292828 July 1938-August 1941, sequence

shared with Envoy type 1

Number made: 24,531 including Envoy type 1

Yet another variation on the basic geared-typebar design. It is

based on the Remington Junior

of 1933, but has a large, rounded paper table. It sometimes

also a horizontal carriage return lever as on the machine at left.

This machine may also be called the Junior DeLuxe.

Envoy type 1 July 1938-August 1941

Serial numbers: SD268298-SD292828 sequence shared with DeLuxe Junior

Number made: 24,531 including DeLuxe Junior

The Envoy name appeared on typewriters with two different body

styles. The first type looks much like a DeLuxe Junior. Keys may

be plastic as shown or have nickeled rings. Specimens known to me

come from Brazil, France, New Zealand, and the UK. Probably this

type of Envoy was sold abroad more than in the US. One specimen

SD290772 is marked

Remington

on the paper table and

Victory

above the keyboard; it has both and characters.

See below for the second type of

Envoy.

Smith Premier Portable Junior and

Senior Sept. 1939-June 1942

Serial numbers: VJ280032-VJ287987 Junior, VS759466-VS762334

Senior

Number made: 7,956 Junior 5,300 old style, 2,656 new style ; 2,869

Senior

These machines are difficult to find; I suspect they were all or

mostly exported, as was typical for typewriters labeled Smith

Premier.

There are two kinds of Smith Premier Junior. Remington records

note: New style Junior starts VJ285,332 December 1941. Above

left is the old style Junior, which looks much like the boxy 5 but lacks a left

platen knob, ribbon color selector, and other details VJ283348,

from Brazil, courtesy of Huberto Closs. Above center is the new

style Junior, which looks very similar to the Remette and Deluxe Remette,

although it has an adjustable paper guide VJ285638, with British

keyboard, courtesy of Angela Prats.

Above right is machine VS760237, courtesy of Carl Raphael. This

is in the Smith Premier Senior range, but is labeled simply

Remington Portable. The design uses a mixture of streamlined and

boxy body panels, a horizontal carriage return lever, and a touch

regulator.  The keyboard on this specimen includes both the

dollar sign and the pound sterling sign. There is a distinctive

decal on the left top of the machine, but it is very worn down;

Carl Raphael writes, The size is identical to the old Remington

To save time is to lengthen life decal found on the old 1s and

2s, 1 in diameter.  The red outlines appear to be the

identical spikes found on those.  However, the white circle

offset to the right inside indicate something different.

Remington Deluxe Noiseless May

1938-April 1941

Serial numbers: ND150000-ND188365

Number made: 38,366. Most were made before 1940.

This is essentially the noiseless

Seven, but with a smaller paper table and a touch regulator to

the right of the keyboard. The tip of the carriage return lever

folds down. Usually this typewriter is finished in wrinkle paint,

but as you can see, you just might find one in eye-popping red. Name

variants: Monarch Deluxe Noiseless, Rmeington Noiseless Portable,

Smith Premier Noiseless Portable. Also sold with the Underwood name.

In 1940, this typewriter sold for 67.50 cash or 72.50 in

installments.

DeLuxe Remette April. 1940-Aug.

Serial numbers: C1117940-C1137176 serials may also start with CQ ;

Remington records do not indicate why

Number made: 19,237

The main features that set the DeLuxe Remette apart from the Remette are platen knobs on

both left and right, a larger carriage return lever, and a larger

paper table. Its price was 39.50.

Remington Standard Model 5 June.

1940-May 1941

Serial numbers: V1116940-V1136948

Number made: 20,009

This model still has the bulbous shape of the original streamlined model 5,

but is painted in wrinkle paint and has a full-sized, horizontal

carriage return lever rather than a small, upright one. It

retailed for 33.50. Remington literature refers to it as the 1941

model, but almost all were made in 1940. Photo courtesy of Phil

Garr.

DeLuxe Model 5 Aug. 1940-July 1942,

Sept. 1945-March 1949

Serial numbers: B1119266-B1224923 1940-42 but see below ;

B1226299-B1698621, B1750100-B1755222 1945-49

Number made: 105,658 before war; 477,446 after war

This fancier version of the Remington Standard Model 5

includes a touch regulator, so it is much like the model 5 with touch

regulator introduced in 1938. A tabulator was added in May

1942. This typewriter may be marked only Remington, or

Remington DeLuxe, or De Luxe. Its price was 54.50. A

correspondent has a prewar DeLuxe Model 5 with serial number

B1112460, before the official starting point in the official

Remington records see above. Machines starting with serial

number B1580000 1948 have a two-tone gray body as shown on the

right.

Deluxe Noiseless Portable

1941 Line July 1940-May 1942

Serial numbers: N1113894-N1212399

Number made: 98,506. see below

This model is almost identical to the earlier DeLuxe

Noiseless; one difference is the one-piece carriage return

lever, as opposed to a folding tip on the older carriage return

lever. It retailed for 69.50. It is sometimes labeled DeLuxe

Noiseless on the front frame, sometimes labeled Remington

Noiseless Portable on the paper table, with no apparent

difference in the mechanism. Pictures courtesy of Cuyler Brooks.

Name variant: Monarch Noiseless Portable. There is a surprising

jump between the start of April 1942 and the start of May 1942

from N1188863 to N1211664. Were 22,801 machines really produced in

one month. Up until then, only about 4000 typewriters per month

were being produced. Possibly a group of serial numbers was

skipped for some reason. But I do have a report of a machine

numbered N1198225, suggesting that at least 9362 typewriters were

produced in April 1942 -- significantly more than average. It is

possible that production was ramped up that month in order to meet

a backlog of orders or for some other reason. 

Quiet Model 1 July. 1940-March 1942

Serial numbers: P1114940-P1182248

Number made: 67,309

Another member of Remington s 1941 line, this wrinkle-painted

noiseless machine closely resembles the Remington Model 1, updated

with a forties look. Its price was 59.50.

Streamliner Feb. 1941-March 1942

Serial numbers: B100000-B121199

Number made: 21,200

Very similar to the early specimens of the streamlined 5, except

that the scale is black rather than red, and the carriage return

lever is full-sized and horizontal. Its price was 49.50. The

name, of course, draws attention to the Deco styling. The word

STREAMLINER leans forward, and even has horizontal speed lines

flowing across it on some versions of the decal. One aerodynamic

typewriter. The name Streamliner was also used on postwar

machines which weren t nearly as streamlined.

Envoy type 2 September 1941-April 1942

Serial numbers: S1,162,749-S1,224,731 September 1941-April 1942,

sequence shared with other standard portables

Number made: impossible to determine

The second kind of Envoy is essentially a Remette with some extra

features horizontal carriage return lever, two platen knobs, color

selector, etc.. It may be finished either in wrinkle paint or in

glossy black paint. Specimens starting with SD276153 have a ribbon

color selector. Thanks to Jim Dax for the picture. See above for the first type of

Postwar portables

These Remingtons are not covered on this site -- but you can learn

about them on this page created by Will Davis.

Foreign variants

Many American Remington models had counterparts that were made

or assembled in other countries, with separate serial numbering

systems.

Australia

Occasionally Remingtons are found with Australian Built

decals. I have seen a 2 portable,

a boxy 5 pictured

above, and others. These were assembled in Australia from

US-manufactured parts.

Canada

Remingtons were made in Canada by Remington Typewriter

Company of Canada, Ltd. or later by Remington Rand Limited. A

Canadian version of the 2

portable is prominently marked Made at Toronto, Canada.

Canadian Remingtons may be marked prominently with a Union Jack

decal and the phrase British Empire Product.

Czechoslovakia

A version of the  3

labeled Remington Z was manufactured by the Czechoslovak Arms

Manufacturing Works in Brno in the early 1930s. Serial numbers

begin with VZ; I have seen VZ10312.

France

Some portables, including the 2,

3, and boxy 5, were sold in

France labeled Contin. Contin was a French manufacturer with

which Remington evidently had some close relations.

I am aware of a tan Remington

Noiseless no. 7, apparently a postwar machine, with

British keyboard, marked Assembled in France on the back. Its

serial number is H200321.

Germany

Remington bought the German typewriter company Torpedo in the

early 30s, and marketed Torpedos under names such as Deutsche

Remington and Remtor. This is not a true Remington design.

Spain

A few typewriters labeled Mondragon and resembling the Remie Scout type a have been found

in Spain. According

to

this web page, there were projects to manufacture

Remingtons and Underwoods in the Basque industrial center

Mondragón in 1932-1936.

United Kingdom

The British versions of several Remington portables were, as

stated prominently on some machines, assembled by British

labour at the Remington typewriter factory, London, from parts

made in U.S.A. Other British variants may read simply

Assembled in Great Britain from parts made in U.S.A. Note that

the British 2 at upper right above has a shift key only on the

left, like the early American 1

portable, even though it is painted in wrinkle paint and

seems to be a product of the mid to late thirties; similar

designs are seen on other European Remingtons of the 1930s.

After the war, Remington established a full-fledged factory in

Glasgow, which operated from 1949 to 1963 see Robert

Messenger s

blog for further information.

Serial number information on these machines is much less reliable

and complete than information for American machines, but I have the

following data from a 1973 British typewriter age guide and other

sources:

A

portable no. 2 with

serial number NE600371 and British keyboard was sold in the UK

in late 1926. American Remingtons of the time have 5 numerals

instead of 6. It is possible that some machines were assembled

in the UK and used a 6-numeral code.

Compact model, with collapsible typebars 2 : prefix CV or EV 1929, EC

or C 1930-1938 ; five figures in serial number, first figure

indicates year of issue. The age guide says six figures, but I

have had several reports of these machines with five figures. To

make things more confusing, a UK version of the 2 has been reported to me

with serial number NM900033, and dated February 1929 on a label

on the case; this system matches the U.S. serial number

system, except that there are six digits instead of five.

Another machine found in Ireland, C51523, bears the decals

Remington 2 and Made in U.S.A.

Home model 3

or Junior : prefix ES,

1933-1939

T model 3.,

with non-collapsible bars: prefix EV, V, TV, 1929-1934

No. 5 Par Model: prefix V or EV, 1933-1939

Remington Portable S and T Models Prefix VV :

1936-38 These include the Victor S Streamlined 5 and

Victor T 5 T-SS Download

a

1936 user s manual for these machines

Canadian Model: 1939-1940

Canadian streamlined model 5: prefix CB, 1939-1940

Remette UK version. : 1939.

The Sholes and Glidden typewriter also known as the Remington No. 1 was the first commercially successful typewriter. Principally designed by the American inventor.

Remington Portables

Remington Rand Typewriter Serial Numbers. Brand: Remington Also known as Rembrandt Remington Torpedo Remington Monarch Remington Rand.

Royal Typewriter Serial Numbers. Also known as Royal Triumph-Adler Sears Royal Singer. Serial Number Table Last Edited: 11/27/15.

Foreign variants. Many American Remington models had counterparts that were made or assembled in other countries, with separate serial numbering systems.

Early Remington models

Although I have few of these to display, it would do well to serve up a quick overview of the early Remington models, to help put the ones that follow in context. Much has been written on the history of the Remington; I will not attempt to repeat that, but will instead attempt to briefly summarize the differences in the various models.

Remington No.1, 1875

The first typewriter to bear the Remington name differed little from the Shoes Gliddon from which it descended. For the most part, it was the Perfected Sholes Gliddon sold under the Remington brand. It typed in all capitals, and had lids that covered the keyboard and carriage when not in use.

Remington No.1.5, c1877

The first Remingtons prior to the No.2 did not have a model number designation. They were marketed simply as Remington or Type Writer. For lack of a better identifier, I m calling this intermediate model the 1.5 so as not to confuse it with the Remington-labeled Sholes Glidden. As you can see, the sides have been opened, yet the keylevers are covered. Though the carriage and keyboard are the same as its predecessor, the frame has been lowered and elongated.

Remington No.2, 1878

This model was a dratmatic departure from the No.1. In shape and size, it more closely resembled what we think of as a modern typewriter. It had 39 keys It is historically important as being the first typewriter to be able to type in both upper- and lower-case letters from the same key. It could type a 6 1/2 line.

Remington No.3, 1886

The original No.3 was an experimental model which was never placed on the market. The No.3 later put on the market was essentially the same as the No.5 with a wider carriage that could accomodate paper 14 wide and type a 12 line. Its mechanism is different from other Remington standards in that the rack and escapement positions are reversed, with the rack teeth pointing upward and rocking back and forth while the escapement dogs point down and travel along with the carriage. The advantage of this is that the carriage is incredibly easy to remove, requiring the removal of only two screws. Forty-two keys.

Remington No.4, 1883

An economy model that closely resembled the No.2 but wrote in uppercase only. In appearance, it differs from the No.2 only by the lack of a Shift key.

Remington No.5, 1887

Loosely similar in design to the No.2 and virtually identical to the No.3 save for a shorter carriage. Designed to meet the needs of the European market, it typed 84 characters on a line 7 1/2 long and accepted paper up to 9 1/2 wide. See below for illustration.

Remington No.6, 1894 - See below

Remington No.7, 1896 - See below

Remington No.8, 1897

Wide-carriage version of the No.7 with an exchangeable carriage.

Remington No.9, 1902 - Wide-carriage model available in five different platen lengths.

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Fostering a love of history is a vital component to telling the story of the Alamo.  Alamo education department staff have created several programs to encourage young visitors to learn more about history and the Alamo.

Alamo Young Couriers

During the Siege and  Battle of the Alamo, several brave couriers broke through the Mexican lines to convey the plight of the defenders to the rest of Texas.  These Alamo Couriers stand for bravery and dedication in the face of overwhelming challenges.  To honor their memory, the Alamo Young Courier Program is an activity-based learning program that encourages the study of the Alamo and Texas history.  The Alamo Young Courier educational activity booklet is geared towards kids ages 5 to 10.  Inside the booklet are 20 pages of fun and educational activities related to history.  Students will find everything from a crossword puzzle to a math worksheet in which they must calculate how many shots a soldier can shoot with his musket.

The booklet is available for sale in the Alamo Gift Shop and includes the cost of a beautiful, 3D Alamo Courier Pin to be awarded upon completion.   After completing the age-appropriate pages of the booklet – and with parents permission – kids can ask any Alamo Tour Guide or the Shrine Hostess for their official Alamo Courier pin.  The tour guide or Shrine Hostess will also sign the certificate on the back of the booklet, confirming a job well done.

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Project Eden v1.0 GERMAN No-CD Patch

Project Eden v1.0.0.1 GERMAN No-CD Patch

Project Eden v1.02 ENGLISH No-CD/Fixed EXE

Project Eden v1.01 ENGLISH No-CD/Fixed EXE

Project Eden v1.0 ENGLISH No-CD Patch

Project Eden CHEAT ENABLER

27-08-2004

gghz

File Archive 65 KB

06-12-2002

Cooper

File Archive 17 KB

Play Instructions:

Install the game - Full Installation.

Extract the CRACK.EXE Patch from the File Archive to the game directory.

Execute the Patch to remove the CD-Check from:  EDEN.EXE

Play the Game.

10-12-2001

dR.oLLe/TGC

File Archive 26 KB

Extract the EDEN_NOCD.EXE Patch from the File Archive to the game directory.

Execute the Patch to remove the CD-Check from:  EDEN.EXE  2.306.048 bytes

02-12-2001

Myth

File Archive 732 KB

Apply the official Project Eden v1.02 Patch.

Replace the original EDEN.EXE file with the one from the File Archive.

01-12-2001

Class

File Archive 700 KB

Apply the official Project Eden v1.01 Patch.

19-10-2001

BuLLeT/Battery

File Archive 16 KB

Extract the B_PATCH.EXE Patch from the File Archive to the game directory.

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20160102-002-v5i32.exe FTP

01/02/2016

430.48 MB

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Supports the following versions of Symantec antivirus software:

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20160102-002-v5i64.exe FTP

431.92 MB

44238430602DCC614363E89520E06AB4

Norton AntiVirus / Norton Internet Security later than 2012 for 64-bit OS only

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20160102-002-i32.exe FTP

806.58 MB

591B59AE4837BA30EA78BE45512C88E1

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20160102-002-i64.exe FTP

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Dell Inspiron 1525 Dell Wireless Lan Driver

dell inspiron 1525 dell wireless lan driver dell inspiron 1525 dell wireless lan driver

Download Dell Bluetooth drivers, firmware, bios, tools, utilities.

Dell Inspiron 5000 Drivers Download For Windows 7, 8.1 and Win XP: Download the proper utility and reliable drivers for Dell Inspiron 5000 and get the best out of your laptop.Here you can download Dell Inspiron 5000 Drivers Including Graphics driver, Chipset driver, Multimedia Driver software for windows.

Dell Inspiron 5000 Drivers Download Table For Windows XP:

Drivers SpecificationVersionFile sizeAdded OnSupported Operating SystemDownload Link

Dell Inspiron 5000 ESS Audio Drivers1.03, A015MB2/1/2002MS Windows XP 32-bit,

MS Windows XP x64, Download

Dell Inspiron 5000 Intel Chipset DriversA08646KB5/1/2002MS Windows XP 32-bit,

Dell Inspiron 5000 Dell Modem Driver1.09, A0115MB11/27/2002MS Windows XP 32-bit,

Dell Inspiron 5000 LAN Drivers6.16, A01172KB12/4/2002MS Windows XP 32-bit,

Dell Inspiron 5000 ATI Graphic Drivers3663C, A043MB 9/16/2002MS Windows XP 32-bit,

Dell Inspiron 5000 Wireless LAN1.40, A049MB7/3/2001 MS Windows XP 32-bit,

Dell Inspiron 5000 Drivers Download Table For Windows 7:

Drivers SpecificationExternal Download

Dell Inspiron 5000 Intel Chipset DriversDownload

Dell Inspiron 5000 ESS Audio DriversDownload

Dell Inspiron 5000 Network LAN DriverDownload

Dell Inspiron 5000 Dell Modem DriverDownload

Dell Inspiron 5000 ATI Graphic DriversDownload

Dell Inspiron 5000 Wireless LANDownload

Dell Inspiron 5000 Driver Overview For Windows:

The latest Dell Inspiron 5000 Notebook has Intel x3100 and driver package which is designed especially for computers running on latest Windows platforms such as Windows 7 and XP. The Latest version of the drivers software that was available in the driver download table are Chipset, Multimedia, modem, network Lan, Multimedia, web cam, Bluetooth drivers for Windows 7, 8.1 and XP.

The Dell Inspiron is a great modern up-to-date device that has quality display, high resolution audio and video output with latest Graphics, Audio driver software. It stands as a reliable laptop both for the business minds and the home users.  This showstopper has great productivity and astonishing speed rates that won t let u test your patience anymore. This Dell model gives improved wireless signals compared to the previous versions and has a impressive and long lasting battery life which are the updated wireless drivers software.

Here you can download the Dell 5000 Driver software from the above driver software download table. You can use this driver software download table links to update the current driver software that you are using. You can also use it to add another printer communication port that already exists even if the driver software was deleted.

More: Dell Inspiron M301z Drivers

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Jan 25, 2012  Laptop error, display adapter, defected laptop, problem, laptop, dell, inspiron, 15R, Dell inspiron 15R laptop problem N5110, Hang problem, system down.

  • Oct 22, 2013  This Dell Inspiron 15R N5110 video repair tutorial was brought to you by SHOP FOR DELL INSPIRON 15R N5110 PARTS: Palmrest.
  • Dell Inspiron N4010 Laptop Drivers Downloads for Windows Vista 32bit Dell QuickSet Application Realtek ALC269Q-GR Audio Driver Intel Management Engine Interface.
  • Dell Inspiron 5000 Driver Overview For Windows: The latest Dell Inspiron 5000 Notebook has Intel x3100 and driver package which is designed especially for.
  • Dell Truemobile 360 Bluetooth 2.0 Module Compatible Laptops: Inspiron: e1705 e1505 e1405 630m, 640m, 1420 1501 1520 1521 1525 1720 1721 6000, 6400, 8500, 8600.
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Dell Inspiron 5000 Drivers

Driver Details

Download Printer Driver Samsung 4300

From HP: Updates the users Windows XP print drivers for theHP Officejet 4300 All-in-One Printer series. This update is compatible with the following products.

Download Samsung SCX-4300 Printer Driver 3.01.77 Digital Camera / Webcam / Camcorder.

Samsung SCX-4300 Printer Driver 3.01.77

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